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Steam coming from Fukushima Unit 3 reactor building — Observed multiple times this week

Tepco (translation), Dec. 27, 2013: At around 7:00 am on December 27, and confirmed by the camera that from Unit 3 reactor building, 5th floor near the center, steam is generated. Have not been identified abnormal plant conditions of 54 minutes at 7:00 am the same day, the indicated value of the monitoring post (meteorological data of 50 minutes at 7:00 am, 5.1 ℃ temperature, 93.1% humidity).

SOURCE: Tepco (July 24, 2013)
Tepco (translation), Dec. 25, 2013: At around 7:00 am on December 25, and confirmed by the camera that from Unit 3 reactor building, 5th floor near the center, steam is generated. Have not been identified abnormal plant conditions of 8:00 am the same day time, the indicated value of the monitoring post (meteorological data of 50 minutes at 7:00 am, 2.8 ℃ temperature, 76.7% humidity).

Tepco (translation), Dec. 24, 2013: At around 7:00 am on December 19, and confirmed by the camera that from Unit 3 reactor building, 5th floor near the center, steam is generated. Have not been identified abnormal plant conditions of 55 minutes at 7:00 am the same day, the indicated value of the monitoring post (meteorological data of 40 minutes at 7:00 am, 5.6 ℃ temperature, 93.7% humidity). Then, in 58 minutes around 7:00 am December 24, steam is no longer observed. It should be noted, have not been identified abnormal plant conditions in a 3-minute time at 8:00 am the same day, the indicated value monitoring posts, etc. (meteorological data of 50 minutes at 7:00 am, 4.1 ℃ temperature, 74.9% humidity).

3 months ago: Steam observed 5 of previous 6 days at Fukushima Unit 3; Lasted for 24 hours straight at one point — Nuclear Expert: There could be pockets of corium still in molten state; Nobody quite understands what’s going on (AUDIO)

Read more

Herculaneum Time Capsule: Ancient Scrolls Reveal Their Long-Hidden Secrets

MessageToEagle.com – On the morning of August 24, 79 AD, Mount Vesuvius erupted and broke its centuries-long silence. Its great cloud of hot ash, stones and poisonous gases completely buried the whole Roman city of Pompeii and for more than seventeen centuries, it would remain lost, forgotten, sealed and preserved in a time capsule.
Vesuvius also completely buried another Roman town – Herculaneum, on the coast of south-west Italy.

The origin of Herculaneum is not clear. The city’s name is based on the demi-god Hercules, who founded the city, according to legend. It may have been a Greek settlement but the early town also shows evidence of Etruscan influence. Herculaneum is another time capsule keeping old secrets buried under volcanic ash and stones.

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The papyri were blackened cylinders (pictured below) more akin to ‘lumps of coal’ and at first they were a mystery to the excavators. On examining some broken fragments, however, it was discovered that the cylinders were indeed scrolls containing Greek text written on scorched papyrus. Credits: Photography by Brian Donovan, The University of Auckland – Centre for Academic Development. Herculaneum Conservation Project

Because the large depth of covering deposits discouraged looting more artefacts have survived. Excavations have recovered fabrics and even food, but also rolls of papyrus.

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In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted and completely buried the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum, on the coast of south-west Italy. For long, both cities have remained forgotten, sealed and preserved in a time capsule.

“The British Museum’s 2013 show of artefacts from the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum, buried in ash during an explosive eruption of Mount Vesuvius, was a sell-out. But could even greater treasures – including lost works of classical literature – still lie underground?

For centuries scholars have been hunting for the lost works of ancient Greek and Latin literature. In the Renaissance, books were found in monastic libraries. In the late 19th Century papyrus scrolls were found in the sands of Egypt. But only in Herculaneum in southern Italy has an entire library from the ancient Mediterranean been discovered in situ,” wrote BBC.

But Herculaneum has proved very difficult to excavate, buried as it is beneath approximately 20 meters of concrete-like material, the hardened volcanic mud which covered it for almost 2,000 years.

In 1752 workers tunneling into a large, wealthy villa (later known as “Villa of the Papyri”) discovered a large number of what appeared to be sticks of charcoal, some of them bundled together.

Upon closer inspection, these sticks proved to be rolls of the ancient writing material papyrus. Numerous attempts to open these rolls and read their contents failed, due to their extreme fragility and the fact that they were burnt by the ca. 300 degree Celsius volcanic flow, compressed by the weight of rubble and mud, and congealed by water,” we read on The Philodemus Project’s website.

Eventually several hundred of the rolls were partly cut apart and partly unrolled.

A conservator from the Vatican, Father Antonio Piaggio (1713-1796), devised a machine to delicately open the scrolls. But it was slow work – the first one took around four years to unroll. And the scrolls tended to go to pieces.

20131229-152650.jpg
The Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum contained many papyrus scrolls, carbonized in the eruption but otherwise still intact.

The fragments pulled off by Piaggio’s machine were fragile and hard to read. “They are as black as burnt newspaper,” says Dr Dirk Obbink, an American-born papyrologist, classicist, specializing in the history of religion and its texts and a lecturer in Papyrology at Oxford University.
Under normal light the charred paper looks “a shiny black” says Obbink, while “the ink is a dull black and sort of iridesces”.

20131229-153743.jpg
The villa, believed to have been owned by the father-in-law of Julius Caesar, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, stretched for more than 250m along the shoreline. It would appear that it was originally built in the first century BC, as a formal atrium villa, subsequently extended. Only eight columns of the portico have been excavated, but judging from the plan of the house there must have been four additional columns to the east of the entrance. Copyright: Photography by Brian Donovan, The University of Auckland – Centre for Academic Development. Copyright © 2001-2009, Herculaneum Conservation Project.

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Herculaneum Papyrus 1428: Philodemus, On Piety

Reading it is “not very pleasant”, he adds. In fact, when Obbink first began working on them in the 1980s the difficulty of the fragments was a shock. On some pieces, the eye can make out nothing. On others, by working with microscopes and continually moving the fragments to catch the light in different ways, some few letters can be made out.

In 1999, scientists from Brigham Young University in the US examined the papyrus using infrared light. Deep in the infrared range, at a wavelength of 700-900 nanometres, it was possible to achieve a good contrast between the paper and the ink. Letters began to jump out of the ancient papyrus. Instead of black ink on black paper, it was now possible to see black lines on a pale grey background.

20131229-152940.jpg
A complete unopened scroll from Herculaneum

In 2008, a further advance was made through multi-spectral imaging. Instead of taking a single (“monospectral”) image of a fragment of papyrus under infrared light (at typically 800 nanometres) the new technology takes 16 different images of each fragment at different light levels and then creates a composite image.

With this technique Obbink is seeking not only to clarify the older infrared images but also to look again fragments that previously defied all attempts to read them. The detail of the new images is so good that the handwriting on the different fragments can be easily compared, which should help reconstruct the lost texts out of the various orphan fragments. “The whole thing needs to be redone,” says Obbink.

But many of the texts that have emerged so far are written by a follower of Epicurus (341 BC – 270 BC), the philosopher and poet Philodemus of Gadara (c.110-c.40/35BC).

Not all of the unique library of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum have been unrolled. The damage – caused by the eruption lasted 18 hours – destroyed the artefacts. Could it be possible to read them in some way, for example – virtually?

In 2009 two unopened scrolls from Herculaneum belonging to the Institut de France in Paris were placed in a Computerised Tomography (CT) scanner, normally used for medical imaging. The machine, which can distinguish different kinds of bodily tissue and produce a detailed image of a human’s internal organs could potentially be used to reveal the internal surfaces of the scroll.

“We were able to unwrap a number of sections from the scroll and flatten them into 2D images – and on those sections you can clearly see the structure of the papyrus: fibers, sand,” says Dr Brent Seales, a computer science professor at the University of Kentucky, who led the effort.

Totally, about 2,000 scrolls have been recovered from the villa, of which almost 1,700 have been unrolled.

“The villa remains one of the great buildings of the ancient world and it should certainly be excavated,” according to Robert Fowler, professor of Greek and dean of arts at Bristol University.Fowler.

With certainty, there is much more hidden underground.

This article was originally published by Message To Eagle. See full article and related links: http://www.messagetoeagle.com/scrollsherculaneum.php

With the courtesy of Message To Eagle.

Scientists Finally Show How Your Thoughts Can Cause Specific Molecular Changes To Your Genes

With evidence growing that training the mind or inducing certain modes of consciousness can have positive health effects, researchers have sought to understand how these practices physically affect the body. A new study by researchers in Wisconsin, Spain, and France reports the first evidence of specific molecular changes in the body following a period of intensive mindfulness practice.

The study investigated the effects of a day of intensive mindfulness practice in a group of experienced meditators, compared to a group of untrained control subjects who engaged in quiet non-meditative activities. After eight hours of mindfulness practice, the meditators showed a range of genetic and molecular differences, including altered levels of gene-regulating machinery and reduced levels of pro-inflammatory genes, which in turn correlated with faster physical recovery from a stressful situation.

“To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that shows rapid alterations in gene expression within subjects associated with mindfulness meditation practice,” says study author Richard J. Davidson, founder of the Center for Investigating Healthy Minds and the William James and Vilas Professor of Psychology and Psychiatry at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
“Most interestingly, the changes were observed in genes that are the current targets of anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs,” says Perla Kaliman, first author of the article and a researcher at the Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona, Spain (IIBB-CSIC-IDIBAPS), where the molecular analyses were conducted.

The study was published in the Journal Psychoneuroendocrinology.

Mindfulness-based trainings have shown beneficial effects on inflammatory disorders in prior clinical studies and are endorsed by the American Heart Association as a preventative intervention. The new results provide a possible biological mechanism for therapeutic effects.

Gene Activity Can Change According To Perception

According to Dr. Bruce Lipton, gene activity can change on a daily basis. If the perception in your mind is reflected in the chemistry of your body, and if your nervous system reads and interprets the environment and then controls the blood’s chemistry, then you can literally change the fate of your cells by altering your thoughts.

In fact, Dr. Lipton’s research illustrates that by changing your perception, your mind can alter the activity of your genes and create over thirty thousand variations of products from each gene. He gives more detail by saying that the gene programs are contained within the nucleus of the cell, and you can rewrite those genetic programs through changing your blood chemistry.

In the simplest terms, this means that we need to change the way we think if we are to heal cancer. “The function of the mind is to create coherence between our beliefs and the reality we experience,” Dr. Lipton said. “What that means is that your mind will adjust the body’s biology and behavior to fit with your beliefs. If you’ve been told you’ll die in six months and your mind believes it, you most likely will die in six months. That’s called the nocebo effect, the result of a negative thought, which is the opposite of the placebo effect, where healing is mediated by a positive thought.”

That dynamic points to a three-party system: there’s the part of you that swears it doesn’t want to die (the conscious mind), trumped by the part that believes you will (the doctor’s prognosis mediated by the subconscious mind), which then throws into gear the chemical reaction (mediated by the brain’s chemistry) to make sure the body conforms to the dominant belief. (Neuroscience has recognized that the subconscious controls 95 percent of our lives.)

Now what about the part that doesn’t want to die–the conscious mind? Isn’t it impacting the body’s chemistry as well? Dr. Lipton said that it comes down to how the subconscious mind, which contains our deepest beliefs, has been programmed. It is these beliefs that ultimately cast the deciding vote.

“It’s a complex situation,” said Dr. Lipton. People have been programmed to believe that they’re victims and that they have no control. We’re programmed from the start with our mother and father’s beliefs. So, for instance, when we got sick, we were told by our parents that we had to go to the doctor because the doctor is the authority concerning our health. We all got the message throughout childhood that doctors were the authority on health and that we were victims of bodily forces beyond our ability to control. The joke, however, is that people often get better while on the way to the doctor. That’s when the innate ability for self-healing kicks in, another example of the placebo effect.

Mindfulness Practice Specifically Affects Regulatory Pathways

The results of Davidson’s study show a down-regulation of genes that have been implicated in inflammation. The affected genes include the pro-inflammatory genes RIPK2 and COX2 as well as several histone deacetylase (HDAC) genes, which regulate the activity of other genes epigenetically by removing a type of chemical tag. What’s more, the extent to which some of those genes were downregulated was associated with faster cortisol recovery to a social stress test involving an impromptu speech and tasks requiring mental calculations performed in front of an audience and video camera.

Biologists have suspected for years that some kind of epigenetic inheritance occurs at the cellular level. The different kinds of cells in our bodies provide an example. Skin cells and brain cells have different forms and functions, despite having exactly the same DNA. There must be mechanisms–other than DNA–that make sure skin cells stay skin cells when they divide.

Perhaps surprisingly, the researchers say, there was no difference in the tested genes between the two groups of people at the start of the study. The observed effects were seen only in the meditators following mindfulness practice. In addition, several other DNA-modifying genes showed no differences between groups, suggesting that the mindfulness practice specifically affected certain regulatory pathways.

The key result is that meditators experienced genetic changes following mindfulness practice that were not seen in the non-meditating group after other quiet activities — an outcome providing proof of principle that mindfulness practice can lead to epigenetic alterations of the genome.

Previous studies in rodents and in people have shown dynamic epigenetic responses to physical stimuli such as stress, diet, or exercise within just a few hours.

“Our genes are quite dynamic in their expression and these results suggest that the calmness of our mind can actually have a potential influence on their expression,” Davidson says.

“The regulation of HDACs and inflammatory pathways may represent some of the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic potential of mindfulness-based interventions,” Kaliman says. “Our findings set the foundation for future studies to further assess meditation strategies for the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions.”

Subconscious Beliefs Are Key

Too many positive thinkers know that thinking good thoughts–and reciting affirmations for hours on end–doesn’t always bring about the results that feel-good books promise.

Dr. Lipton didn’t argue this point, because positive thoughts come from the conscious mind, while contradictory negative thoughts are usually programmed in the more powerful subconscious mind.

“The major problem is that people are aware of their conscious beliefs and behaviors, but not of subconscious beliefs and behaviors. Most people don’t even acknowledge that their subconscious mind is at play, when the fact is that the subconscious mind is a million times more powerful than the conscious mind and that we operate 95 to 99 percent of our lives from subconscious programs.

“Your subconscious beliefs are working either for you or against you, but the truth is that you are not controlling your life, because your subconscious mind supersedes all conscious control. So when you are trying to heal from a conscious level–citing affirmations and telling yourself you’re healthy–there may be an invisible subconscious program that’s sabotaging you.”

The power of the subconscious mind is elegantly revealed in people expressing multiple personalities. While occupying the mind-set of one personality, the individual may be severely allergic to strawberries. Then, in experiencing the mind-set of another personality, he or she eats them without consequence.

The new science of epigenetics promises that every person on the planet has the opportunity to become who they really are, complete with unimaginable power and the ability to operate from, and go for, the highest possibilities, including healing our bodies and our culture and living in peace.

Article sources:
wisc.edu
brucelipton.com
ts-si.org

Michael Forrester is a spiritual counselor and is a practicing motivational speaker for corporations in Japan, Canada and the United States.

See also other DNA related articles on this blog.

Original article: Tuned body
Image source

Origins And History Of The Christmas Tree

The Mystica-team wishes all followers, friends and visitors Merry Christmas!

El team de Mystica desea Feliz Navedad a todos los seguidores, amigos y visitadores!

(para una versión en Español mirar enlaces al final del artículo)

Traditions: Christmas Trees and Ornaments

The fir tree has a long association with Christianity, it began in Germany almost 1,000 years ago when St Boniface, who converted the German people to Christianity, was said to have come across a group of pagans worshipping an oak tree. In anger, St Boniface is said to have cut down the oak tree and to his amazement a young fir tree sprung up from the roots of the oak tree. St Boniface took this as a sign of the Christian faith. But it was not until the 16th century that fir trees were brought indoors at Christmas time.

SONY DSC


CHRISTMAS TREE TRADITION HAS ANCIENT ORIGINS

King Tut never saw a Christmas tree, but he would have understood the tradition which traces back long before the first Christmas, says David Robson, Extension Educator, Horticulture with the Springfield Extension Center.

The Egyptians were part of a long line of cultures that treasured and worshipped evergreens. When the winter solstice arrive, they brought green date palm leaves into their homes to symbolize life’s triumph over death.

Pompeii_-_Osteria_della_Via_di_Mercurio_-_Dice_PlayersThe Romans celebrated the winter solstice with a fest called Saturnalia in honor of Saturnus, the god of agriculture. They decorated their houses with greens and lights and exchanged gifts. They gave coins for prosperity, pastries for happiness, and lamps to light one’s journey through life.

Centuries ago in Great Britain, woods priests called Druids used evergreens during mysterious winter solstice rituals. The Druids used holly and mistletoe as symbols of eternal life, and place evergreen branches over doors to keep away evil spirits.

Late in the Middle Ages, Germans and Scandinavians placed evergreen trees inside their homes or just outside their doors to show their hope in the forthcoming spring. Our modern Christmas tree evolved from these early traditions.

Legend has it that Martin Luther began the tradition of decorating trees to celebrate Christmas. One crisp Christmas Eve, about the year 1500, he was walking through snow-covered woods and was struck by the beauty of a group of small evergreens. Their branches, dusted with snow, shimmered in the moonlight. When he got home, he set up a little fir tree indoors so he could share this story with his children. He decorated it with candles, which he lighted in honor of Christ’s birth.Early-Christmas-Tree

The Christmas tree tradition most likely came to the United States with Hessian troops during the American Revolution, or with German immigrants to Pennsylvania and Ohio, adds Robson.

But the custom spread slowly. The Puritans banned Christmas in New England. Even as late as 1851, a Cleveland minister nearly lost his job because he allowed a tree in his church. Schools in Boston stayed open on Christmas Day through 1870, and sometimes expelled students who stayed home.

The Christmas tree market was born in 1851 when Catskill farmer Mark Carr hauled two ox sleds of evergreens into New York City and sold them all. By 1900, one in five American families had a Christmas tree, and 20 years later, the custom was nearly universal.

Christmas tree farms sprang up during the depression. Nurserymen couldn’t sell their evergreens for landscaping, so they cut them for Christmas trees. Cultivated trees were preferred because they have a more symmetrical shape then wild ones.

 Six species account for about 90 percent of the nation’s Christmas tree trade. Scotch pine ranks first, comprising about 40 percent of the market, followed by Douglas fir which accounts for about 35 percent. The other big sellers are noble fir, white pine, balsam fir and white spruce.

CHRISTMAS TREE HISTORY

Did a celebration around a Christmas tree on a bitter cold Christmas Eve at Trenton, New Jersey, turn the tide for Colonial forces in 1776? According to legend, Hessian mercenaries were so reminded of home by a candlelit evergreen tree that they abandoned their guardposts to eat, drink and be merry. Washington attacked that night and defeated them.

The Christmas tree has gone through a long process of development rich in many legends, says David Robson, Extension Educator, Horticulture, with the Springfield Extension Center.

christmas_treeSome historians trace the lighted Christmas tree to Martin Luther. He attached lighted candles to a small evergreen tree, trying to simulate the reflections of the starlit heaven — the heaven that looked down over Bethlehem on the first Christmas Eve.

Until about 1700, the use of Christmas trees appears to have been confined to the Rhine River District. From 1700 on, when lights were accepted as part of the decorations, the Christmas tree was well on its way to becoming a tradition in Germany. Then the tradition crossed the Atlantic with the Hessian soldiers.

Some people trace the origin of the Christmas tree to an earlier period. Even before the Christian era, trees and boughs were used for ceremonials. Egyptians, in celebrating the winter solstice — the shortest day of the year — brought green date palms into their homes as a symbol of “life triumphant over death”. When the Romans observed the feast of saturn, part of the ceremony was the raising of an evergreen bough. The early Scandinavians were said to have paid homage to the fir tree.

To the Druids, sprigs of evergreen holly in the house meant eternal life; while to the Norsemen, they symbolized the revival of the sun god Balder. To those inclined toward superstition, branches of evergreens rockefeller-center-christmas-tree-wallpaper-desktop-1placed over the door kept out witches, ghosts, evil spirits and the like.

This use does not mean that our Christmas tree custom evolved solely from paganism, any more than did some of the present-day use of sighed in various religious rituals.

Trees and branches can be made purposeful as well as symbolic. The Christmas tree is a symbol of a living Christmas spirit and brings into our lives a pleasant aroma of the forest. The fact that balsam fir twigs, more than any other evergreen twigs, resemble crosses may have had much to do with the early popularity of balsam fir used as Christmas trees.

 

View full article and more info about the Christmas tree at Christmastree.com

Enlaces en Español: Wikipedia, mercaba.org, catholic.net, saberia.com

Written by: David Robson Extension Educator, Horticulture Springfield Extension Center

Image credits:

www.history.uk.com, Wikipedia, Upperallenfire, Wallpaper’s universe

Apocalypse 2012: One Year After

Hugdablog.comOne year after the apocalypse that never happened, there are basically three types of people: those who never believed that there would have been anything special on December 21, 2012 and find it just great that their ideas were confirmed; those who believed in an apocalypse that day and want to forget about it as quickly as possible; and those who insist that the mythical end date did indeed herald a new era to be welcomed.

2012 was the year of changes, the year of revolts, very much expressed in the Occupy Wallstreet movement; it was also the year of UFO sightings, and a year when thousands of people thought that something really special was going to happen, either catastrophic or positive: a new consciousness was predicted for mankind. The “Galactic Federation of Light” channeled lots of messages, and some people believed that extraterrestrial beings who had once visited Earth, were about to come back and give mankind a new consciousness, in a bad or a good way.

The hype was based on an alleged Maya prophecy that predicted the “end of the world as we know it” for the day of 4 Ahaw, which corresponds, according to the most accepted calendar correlation, to December 21, 2012. That was also the day when one of the Mayan calendars, the so called long count calendar, would end – this was the interpretation. The inscription of a  stele in Tortuguero, an excavation site in Tabasco, Mexico, shows a message for the Day of 4 Ahaw: “The thirteenth baktun will end on 4 Ajaw, the 3rd Uniiw [3 K’ank’in]. (Everything) will become black. The descendent Bolon Yokte’ K’uh will become the big (or red)… )…[unreadable]

tortuguero stele markvanstone.comStele 6, the “Mayan endtime prophecy”

This was the base of the alleged Maya prophecy.

However, the stele is not actually Mayan. It was dated back to 700 BC and belongs therefore to an earlier Mesoamerican culture.

It has to be said that the date was calculated with the so called GMT correlation – a correlation between the Mayan and the Gregorian calendar which is today the most accepted one. But there are many others which might be closer to the truth. So if the “Mayan prophecy” didn’t happen, maybe it was only because the date was badly calculated? Maybe we have to fear for the predicted apocalypse in the future?

In the following text, based on the work on Maurice Cotterell, we’ll analyze the myths of 2012 and see how much remains from the actual apocalyptic prophecy at all, and whether we have to expect the missing events some when in the future.

Part 1

Myth number 1; It is said that the Maya measured time using a ‘vigesimal numerical system’;

The Maya used the following periods of time with which to measure time intervals;

Kinchilitun

Calabtun

Pictun

Baktun

Katun

Tun

Uinal

Kin

1,152,000,000

57,600,000

2,880,000

144,000

7,200

360

20

1

This is not a Vigesimal System. A Vigesimal system rises by factors of 20

A Vigesimal system looks like this;

1,280,000,000

64,000,000

3,200,000

160,000

8,000 

400 

20

1

Conclusion: The Maya did not use a Vigesimal system.


Myth number 2; The Maya ‘Long Count’ of 1,872,000 days (5,125.256674 years) is the ‘end of a Maya time cycle’ that began in 3114BC and will end on 21.12. 2012.

1,872,000 days = 13 periods of 144,000 days

Kinchilitun

Calabtun

Pictun

Baktun

Katun

Tun

Uinal

Kin

1,152,000,000

57,600,000

2,880,000

144,000

7,200

360

20

1

?

?

?

13

0

0

0

0

But the definition of  ‘cycle’ is ‘a complete series of events’. A complete series of events here could only transpire when all of the time periods (including those marked ‘?’) return to zero. The period 1,872,000 cannot therefore represent a cycle or the ‘end of a cycle’. At best it can only be considered to be 13/20ths of the Pictun, the next largest period.

Conclusion; 1,872,000 cannot represent a ‘cycle’ of time and therefore cannot represent the end of a cycle of time.


Myth number 3; The period 1,872,000 is the ‘longest time interval’ found carved on a Maya monument and therefore represents the ‘end of time’ or the ‘end of the Maya Calendar’.

This is not true. Other carved dates have been found that exceed 1,872,000, for example;

On Stela N, at Copan, six periods, including the Pictun, have been found, showing a period of 42,908,400 days.

On the west Panel at the Temple of Inscriptions, at Palenque, six (possibly seven) periods are found showing an interval of 455,393,401 days.

On Stela 10, at Tikal, eight (possibly nine) periods are found showing a time interval of 1,841,639,800 days.

Conclusion; The number 1,872,000 representing the date  ? ? ? 13 0 0 0 0, is neither ‘the end of time’ nor the ‘end of the Maya Calendar’.


precession_1, httpoceanworld.tamu.eduMyth number 4; The 21st December 2012 is the ‘end date’ of the 25,800 year precession cycle.
The cycle of precession refers to the long-term wobble of the Earth on its axis. As it wobbles it moves backwards through [relative to] the backdrop of stars known as the astronomical and astrological ‘zodiac’. But the Astrological zodiac, relative to the Earth’s movement through the heavens in one year, begins with the ‘first sign of the zodiac’, Aries, and ends on the last day of Pisces. The backwards precession cycle therefore moves from the last day of Pisces to the first day of Aries over 25,800 years. The Sun, therefore, sweeps through each sign of the zodiac every 2,150 years. We are soon to enter the zodiacal sign of Aquarius, although the exact date of entry is not known [estimates, from various researchers, range from AD2060 through to AD2100—we do know that when Thebes was the centre of power in Egypt, Apis the bull (Taurus) was worshipped, suggesting that at that period the Earth’s axis was pointing towards the constellation of Taurus. 2,150 years later, at Luxor, the Ram headed Sphinx (of Aries) was worshipped. 2,150 years later Pisces the fish was revered with the appearance of Christ, represented by the vesica pisces, the fish, formed by the overlapping circles of the planet Venus (known as the morning star and the evening star)]. This is to say that the zodiac is presently moving from Pisces into Aquarius (not from Aries into Pisces). Hence, the Earth’s axis (precession cycle start) is not coincident with the zodiac ‘start point’ of Aries which occurred around 2,150 years ago and will not happen again for another 23,650 years. Therefore the Earth’s axis will not, in 2012, point towards the ‘start’ of a new precession cycle as defined in zodiacal terms.
Conclusion; The precession cycle is not about to come to an end of a cycle. The most recent precession cycle began around 2,150 years ago as the Earth’s axis passed from Aries through Pisces. [1/12th of the precession cycle has already passed].


Myth number 5; The Earth’s precession cycle will cross the galactic equator at sunrise on 21st December 2012.

The original proponent of this hypothesis, set-down in 1997, suggested that the Sunrise on 21st December 2012 will, as it drifts through the 25,800 year precession cycle, align with a ‘cloud of cosmic dust’ in the Milky Way. This entire concept is meaningless because the rising of the Sun must align with something in the heavens on any one day.

Following ridicule of the claim, proponents searched long and hard for any astronomical evidence that may lend support. Shortly after, another researcher drew a line through the ecliptic of the Milky Way (which happened to also go through the cloud of ‘alignment dust’) claiming it to be the ‘the centre-line of the galactic ecliptic —the ‘galactic equator’—saying that the precession cycle would cut through the line in 1998. But, firstly, the line is merely a guess. It contains no mathematical support. In order to construct such a line the mass of every celestial body in the Milky Way (every star, every planet, every rock, every comet and every particle of cosmic dust) would need to be quantified by mass; each body would then need to be set down relative to every other; a linear regression of the data would need to be made and then a mass trend-line constructed. But such a task would be impossible to carry out. Moreover, the result of the centre-line guess showed that ‘galactic alignment’ would occur in 1998, not 2012. To overcome this 14-year discrepancy the 21.12.2012 alignment proponents introduced a margin of error saying that the Sun would take 36 years to cross the centre-line, representing ‘era-2012’, from 1980-2016.

Hence, the ‘cloud of dust’ alignment hypothesis is irrational, the ‘centre-line of the galaxy’ hypothesis is non-quantifiable, and the alignment with the centre of the galaxy on 21.12.2012 has changed to sometime between ‘1980–2016’.

Moreover, the entire notion fails because no physical ‘cycle’ of events has been shown to occur during the precession cycle [for example, one solar ‘cycle’ on Earth occurs as the earth revolves around the Sun once every year. As that happens the duration of daylight at specific latitudes varies, because the Earth is tilted on its axis. The variations in daylight cause plant life to grow and die annually]. No scientific evidence of any ‘series of changes’ has been put forward by proponents of the ‘galactic cycle alignment hypothesis’.

Conclusion; The galactic alignment hypothesis is without scientifically verifiable foundation.


Myth Number 6; On the 21st December 2012 ‘Myth number 5’ (above) will usher in a new 25,800 year cycle  of ‘consciousness’.

No scientifically verifiable mechanism has been proven to substantiate this claim.

Conclusion; the claim is without foundation.


Myth Number 7; Cosmic dust eruptions from the centre of the Milky Way cause ice-ages on Earth.

The claim is that the centre of our galaxy spews out dust periodically that covers the Earth periodically, causing the onset of ice-ages and mini ice-ages on Earth. However, we know that the Sun’s neutral magnetic sheet reverses its magnetic field 5 times every 18,139 years. When the magnetic field is positive is sucks galactic dust into the solar system and when it is negative it pushes dust out of the solar system (or vice versa). We know that Sunspot cycles correspond to mini ice-ages on Earth. Hence, it is not the dust that causes mini ice-ages (or ice ages) on Earth but the Sun’s reversing magnetic field. The dust is merely symptomatic of the solar reversal ice-age mechanism.

Conclusion; the claim is unproven.
Myth number 8; Cosmic dust bombards the solar system causing variations in thought processes and DNA in living organisms.

No scientifically verifiable mechanism has been put forward to support this hypothesis.

Conclusion; the claim has not been verified.


So how did the misunderstanding over the number 1,872,000 arise, in connection with apocolyptic prophecy in 2012?

The Book of Chilam [the Prophet] Balam  [the Jaguar] of Chumayel [found in the town of Chumayel]  was set down by the Maya prophet in around 1500 – 1520 and translated from the Maya language in 1931 by the American scholar Ralph Roys (University of Oklahoma Press, 1931…1937). (Note; the term Jaguar was used as a metaphor for the ‘golden sun with brown spots [sunspots])’. Page 134 gives the following prophecies;

Unattainable is the bread in Katun 13 Ahau. The Sun shall be eclipsed. Double is the charge of the Katun: men without offspring, chiefs without successors. For five days the Sun shall be eclipsed, then it shall be seen again. This is the charge of Katun 13 Ahau’.

But how are we to interpret the statement?
(i)
A Katun period is 7,200 days long.
Ahau is the last (20th) day in the Maya 20 day month.

Does the statement mean Katun     13 Ahau?
=       Katun     13 x 20 = Katun   260   =   7,200 x 260 = 1,872,000 = 5,125.25 years.
Which, if counted forward from the Maya Calendar Start date in 3114BC brings
us to the 2012 date.

(ii)
Or does it mean  Katun13   Ahau? i.e. the last day called Ahau in Katun numbered 13 = 13 x 7,200 = 93,600 = 256.2628 years.

The Books of Chilam Balam make it clear  (Appendix H p205) that;

‘…the Katun is named for the day on which it ends’

Meaning that Katun 13 Ahau refers to (ii) ‘the last day of Katun 13’, i.e. the 93,600th day

And goes on (p204) to list the dates of Katun 13 Ahau as;

AD 511
768
1024
1280
1536 the list can be continued by adding 256.2628 years to the accumulating figures;
1798
    2054

Clearly, ‘… Double was not charge’ of any of these dates…’men were not without offspring… chiefs were not without successors’ and ‘the Sun was not eclipsed for 5 days’ in any of the years listed here. So here we have a contradiction. If we interpret the prophecies in Chilam Balam according to the 256-year dates given in Chilam Balam then the prophecies are clearly wrong, moreover, 2012 does not appear in the list.

The 21.12. 2012 doomsday proponents thus select the data that suits their purpose. They chose interpretation (i), the number 1,872,000, because it ends in 2012 but, at the same time, cite the prophecies of Chilam Balam that refer to (ii). A case, if ever there was one, of running with the fox and hunting with the hounds.

And then, unable to show any scientific mechanism to substantiate the prophecies of Chilam Balam, they change the prophecies to suit themselves saying;

‘The Maya used a vigesimal system’. Not true.
‘The Maya number 1,872,000 is the end of a Maya Cycle’. Not true.
‘The number 1,872,000 is the highest number carved in the inscriptions’. Not true.
‘2012 is the end of the Precession cycle’. Not true.
‘The Solar system will cross the Galactic ecliptic on 21st Dec 2012’. Not proven’.
‘2012 will usher in a new cycle of consciousness’. Not proven.
‘Cosmic dust incursions cause ice ages’. Not proven.
‘Cosmic Dust causes a shift in consciousness’. Not proven.

So why did the Maya use periods of time to measure time?
Why did their calendar begin in 3114BC, 3,000 years before the Maya appeared on Earth?
Why did they [all but] die-out in around AD740?
What were they trying to tell us?
Why did they worship the number 1,366,560 (the rebirth of Venus)?
Why did they use a 260-day ‘ceremonial calendar’?
Why did they worship the Sun as the god of astrology and the god of fertility?
From whom, or where, did they acquire their super-knowledge of the Sun and spirituality?
What is the meaning of the 1,872,000 day ‘Long Count’ period?

Part 2

The word ‘Maya’ is found in ancient Indian Sanskrit and means ‘illusion’. The Maya of Central America appeared firstly in the stone-built city of Teotihuacan in around 100BC and died out (for the most part) in around AD740. It is clear that the leader of the Maya, Lord Pacal, was a supernatural being who set down his super-knowledge of science and spirituality in the treasures of the Maya; their stone carvings, jewellery, paintings, architecture and calendrical system. He was buried in his tomb in the Pyramid of Inscriptions at the Maya ceremonial centre in Palenque in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico in around AD740 aged around 42. His treasures reveal that; he was conceived through an immaculate conception; when he was born a bright star appeared in the sky; when he lived he performed miracles; and when he died he became the planet Venus, the brightest and purest source of light in the heavens, also referred to by ancient civilisations as the ‘twin-star’ because sometimes it can be seen in the morning, as the morning star, and (292 days later in its orbit around the Sun) in the evening, as the evening star. The last page of the Bible says this ‘I Jesus… am the root and offspring of David, and the bright and morning star [Venus; the bright evening star and the morning star]’ (Revelation 12:16).

The stories in his treasures say that he was born before, as Lord Krishna, of the Hindu, Tutankhamun, of  Egypt, Lord Buddha, of India, Chin Shi Huang Di, of China, Jesus, of Nazareth, Lord Pacal, of Mexico and the Viracochas’, the legendary white Gods who walked the lands of Peru in ancient times performing miracles. Indeed, the name Pacal appears to derive etymologically from the Christian Catholic word Pascal (meaning Easter) that itself is derived from the word Passover (referring to the period during which Jesus was Crucified).

This may sound extraordinary to the newcomer, but the stories, encoded using pictures and numbers, from so many different sources—stone carvings, jewellery, paintings, architecture and calendrical system—are unequivocal in the messages they convey suggesting that they were encoded by a sophisticated intelligence not of this world, one that can best be described as ‘miraculous’.

We must keep this in mind when attempting to understand what the Maya were trying to convey through their astronomical observations of Venus and their choice of calendrical periods of time.

Apart from the calendrical periods of time already mentioned, the Maya used a 260-day ceremonial ‘astrological calendar’ and revered a special ‘super-number’ of 1,366,560 days that they referred to as the ‘Rebirth of Venus’. No orthodox researcher understands why the Maya calendar should have started on 10th August 3114BC—more than 3,000 years before the Maya appeared on the planet—or why they chose to revere the 3114BC date as the ‘birth of Venus’. However, in The Mayan Prophecies [Element Books Ltd, Shaftesbury, 1995] I showed how the Sun’s magnetic field shifted direction in 3114BC causing the planet Venus to turn upside down on its axis—Venus now spins on its axis backwards and its rate of spin has slowed to 243 Earth days (i.e. one day on Venus now takes 243 Earth-days to subsist). The planet Earth, being more distant from the Sun, did not topple on its axis at that time. The magnetic reversal though did affect life on Earth; I showed how the 28-day revolving Sun showers the Earth with charged particles that regulate the menstrual cycle and hence fertility on Earth; how the Sun determines personality of the foetus through genetic mutations at the moment of conception (Sun-sign Astrology); how an increase in solar rays causes miscarriage and spontaneous foetal abortion; and how Sunspot cycles cause mini ice-ages and periodic drought and famine, and sometimes pole-shifts. This is why the Maya worshipped the Sun as the God of Fertility and the God of Astrology and associated the cycles of the Sun with catastrophe cycles on Earth. I also showed, using a new method I named ‘rotational differentiation’, that the Sun’s solar magnetic field would again shift direction 1,366,040 days after the 3114BC event and, if the magnetic reversal was strong enough, cause Venus to topple once again—the rebirth of Venus. [The solar neutral sheet direction did indeed shift between AD627 +/- 187 years, but was not strong enough on that occasion to topple Venus off its axis; but it did cause the decline of the Maya through infertility, miscarriage, spontaneous foetal abortion, drought and famine].

The Maya monitored the heavens using visual observations of Venus, which takes 584 days to orbit the Sun once, when seen from Earth. These endless cycles of time are well documented in one of the Maya bark books, The Dresden Codex, that lists their super number ‘the rebirth of Venus’ as 1,366,560 days (2,340 complete orbits of the planet Venus)—the closest they could get (using whole numbers of Venus revolutions) to the true computer-calculated figure of 1,366,040 days (3,740 years). Notwithstanding, the true (exact) figure is given by one of their treasures ‘the sun-shield of Monte Alban’, a mosaic jade disc pierced by 4 arrows that carries 85 golden loops of thread around the perimeter (metaphorical magnetic sunspot loops) and 11 golden pendants from below; 4 x 11 x 85 = 3,740 (years). Proving that the Maya were aware of the true (computer calculated) magnetic reversal period of 1,366,040 days. They were using an astronomical constant, the solar neutral sheet magnetic reversal period, to tell us about the rebirth of Venus—but only as a metaphor to explain that they were referring to the rebirth of Jesus—that Lord Pacal, the priest-king leader of the Maya at that time, was the reincarnation of Jesus on Earth.

To understand just what the Maya were trying to tell us with their cycles of time we have to recognise the importance of the 260-day astrological calendar period, the 1,366,560-day period (the Maya rebirth of Venus number) and keep in mind that Lord Pacal was the rebirth of Venus, the metaphorical rebirth of Jesus, predicted to occur 1,366,040 days after Venus was born on 10th August 3114BC, the start of their calendar.

That this is so can be shown by examining some of the Maya treasures.

The 5-tonne limestone lid that covers the sarcophagus of Lord Pacal, in the Pyramid of Inscriptions, at Palenque, is the ‘Rosetta-Stone’ of Maya carving. The information contained in the lid–more than 100 stories explaining the meaning of Heaven, Hell, Purgatory, life, death, and the life and times of Lord Pacal–cannot be decoded without first finding two missing pieces of the lid. In the same way the Maya calendrical periods cannot be understood without first finding the two missing pieces, the numbers 260 and 1,366,560 (2,340 revolutions of Venus). We know this by analysing the Pyramid of Inscriptions. Before we see how this can be shown let’s return to the Maya number sequence and show that the Maya used a 360-degree based system, not a vigesimal system;

Maya time periods

144,000

7,200

360

20

1

=

151,581 days

divided by 360 =

400

20

1

.0555

.00277

=

        421.0583

At first these seem absurd. Why would anyone base a calendar on time periods that produce 421.0583 periods of time? The answer to this is simple; the Maya wished to use a base 360 system because they were interested in the orbital cycles of Venus (measured in angular degrees). But why 421.0583?

To understand this we need to visit the Pyramid of Inscriptions and count the steps of the front stairway. In The Supergods [Thorsons, London, 1997) I described how the front stairway comprises of 5 sections; the first (the lowest–ground floor) stairway contains 9 steps, the second13 steps, the third 19 steps, the fourth 19 steps the fifth (the highest) 9 steps. This represents the date 9 19 19 13 9. Set down against Maya time periods looks like this;

144,000

7,200

360

20

1

x

x

x

x

x

9 +

19 +

19 +

13 +

9

=

1,439,909 days

=

3,999.747222 cycles of 360

Examining firstly the decimal part of the number of cycles, .74222;

.74722 x 360 = 268.999

Here the Maya are telling us to ‘round-up’ the figure to 269. We know that the most important number for the Maya is their astrological calendar period of 260 days (the Sun’s equator revolves once every 26 days (on the surface of the Sun). 260 hence represents 10 revolutions of the Sun’s equator. The number 269 contains this important 260 day figure + 9. This tells us that if we wish to understand the treasures of the Pyramid of Inscriptions we need to keep in mind the numbers 260 and 9.

In The Tutankhamun Prophecies (Headline Books Ltd., London, 1999) I showed how the Maya left behind a numerical matrix of clues inside the Pyramid of Inscriptions; for example, 3 clay plates were found in a stone chest together with 3 red shells; the tomb door had 3 sides; Lord Pacal carried 3 jade beads (one in each hand and one in his mouth) and he wore a 3-tiered jade necklace. There were 4 steps down into the tomb, the dead man wore 4 jade rings on his right hand and 4 jade rings on his left hand, 4 pairs of holes were drilled into the paving stone that covered the concealed stairway and 4 cyclindrical plugs were used to fix the sarcophagus into position. All of the clues taken together produced the following numerical matrix;

                1          1            1            1                1
2          2            2            2                2
3          3            3            3                3
4          4            4            4                4
5          5            5            5                5
6          6            6            6                6
7          7            7            7                7
8          8            8            8                8
9          9            9            9                9

Decoding of the outside stairway (above) produced the numbers 260 and 9. The matrix, on first inspection, appears to take care of the 9*. But what about the 260? This tells us that in order to understand the Maya counting system we need to recognise the most important number (missing from the system). Inserting 260 into the time sequence gives;

          144,000   7,200     360       260             20
1          1            1            1                1  = 151,840 days
2          2            2            2                2     303,680
3          3            3            3                3     455,520
4          4            4            4                4     607,360
5          5            5            5                5     759,200
6          6            6            6                6     911,040
7          7            7            7                7     1,062,880
8          8            8            8                8     1,214,720
9          9            9            9                9     1,366,560 rebirth of Venus

Which they monitored using 2,340 whole revolutions of Venus [2340 x 584 = 1366560]
[*Note; the single digit column (1) is necessarily displaced due to the insertion of the 260 day column. The accrued error due to the omission thus becomes the displaced 9 [1 x 9], explicitly reconciling the missing number 9 from the 260 + 9  stairway figure. Moreover, the number 9 was worshipped by the Maya as a holy number and represented the number of a ‘Supergod’, for example as the reincarnation of Christ. 999 is the corollary of the number 666, the number of the beast mentioned in Revelation, and the highest number before becoming 1 [1,000] with God].
This tells us that the man in the tomb, Lord Pacal was associated with the number 1,366,560-day period. Lord Pacal was the ‘Rebirth of Venus’—the rebirth of Jesus. It tells us that the Maya used a 360-based calendar; that they understood the notion of 360 degrees to a circle (one orbit of Venus); that they understood the decimal point system (that 260 = 26 x 10) and that they understood the solar variables (the 26-day duration of rotation of the solar equator). How else could they convey this information to future peoples like ourselves. As the Bible says ‘knock and the door will be opened’ ‘ask and you shall receive’ (Mathew 7:7-8). He that searches for knowledge and wisdom shall be given knowledge and wisdom. The Popol Vuh, the 16th Century Maya holy book, begins and ends with the same statement…’the Popol Vuh cannot be seen anymore. It has been hidden from the searcher and the thinker (The Popol Vuh, University of Oklahoma Press, trans. D.Goetz & S.G.Morley, Wm. Hodge & Co 1947).

Returning to the outer stairway instruction number of 3,999.74222. The decimal part (.74722 x 360 = 260 + 9) has been resolved and we now need to address the number 3,999;

Using the same logic as before, we need to round up the number from 3,999 to 4,000.

4,000 x 360 = 144,000, the number of those who will be saved when the world ends;

I saw four angels standing on the four corners of the earth, [North, South, West and East] holding the four winds of the Earth, that the wind should not blow on the Earth, nor on the sea nor on any tree. And I saw another angel ascending from the east having the seal of the living God: And he cried with a loud voice to the four angels, to whom it was given to hurt the Earth, and the sea, saying “Hurt not the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees, till we have sealed the servants of our god in their foreheads”. And I heard the number of them which were sealed; and there were sealed an hundred and forty four thousand of all the tribes of the children of Israel….’ (Revelation 7: 1-3)

That this is the correct interpretation of the messages of the Maya is supported by other decoded treasures of the Maya; the 5-tonne sarcophagus lid, when decoded, shows a picture of Lord Pacal carrying the number 144,000 written on his forehead, but only when the [two parts of the] decoded picture[s] are set to 14.4 degrees (see the picture with your own eyes on http://www.MauriceCotterell.com). The decoded Mosaic Mask of Palenque shows pictures of Lord Pacal in his previous lives; The Mural of Bonampak shows that Lord Pacal’s mother conceived through an immaculate conception, carried ‘twins’ (the planet Venus) in her womb, gave birth in a stable and shows Lord Pacal with a cross made of two pieces of wood. The decoded Sun-shield of Monte-Alban tells the story of how Viracocha of Tiahuanaco, Bolivia, was the reincarnation of Jesus and reveals pictures of; God giving birth to Jesus, Jesus carrying the cross of Christianity across his forehead and Jesus dying on the cross and ascending to Heaven. And it shows that those who live for the body, for physical pleasure, find only death and darkness, whereas the 144,000, find eternal life. Nowhere in the decoded treasures of the Maya does the date of 21.12.2012 take centre stage, nowhere is it given any special status.

The Meaning of the 1,872,000 Long Count of days

The Venus interval the Maya used for the ‘Rebirth of Venus’ calculation is not precisely 584 days long, it is actually 583.92 days long. This means that every time they counted the 2,340 Venus intervals they finished up with an error of 2340 x .08 = 187.2 days. This is the basis for the so-called long count of 1,872,000. So why bring-up the number of 1,872,000, which is 10,000 times bigger than the error; to our attention?  Because Lord Pacal, the priest King leader of the Maya, wished to emphasise not only the importance of the 2,340 Venus interval period [the rebirth of Jesus] that resulted in the 187.2 day error, but he also wanted to bring to our attention the most important number of 144,000, the period of the Baktun, the number set-down by Jesus in the book of Revelations that says 144,000 will go to Heaven when the world ends. Only the long count contains both the numbers of 187.2 and 144,000. [1,872,000 is the lowest common denominator for the important numbers of 187.2 (the ‘Rebirth of Venus’) and 144,000 (the most important number mentioned by Jesus in the Bible)]. Lord Pacal was the rebirth (reincarnation) of Jesus.

Religion

Some commentators have suggested that because the same ‘religious story’ appears so often throughout history, the story itself must be a myth. Their reasoning goes like this; if you search the annals of history one particular story emerges time and time again over the past several thousand years:

A man, known as ‘the son of God’ came into the world through an ‘immaculate conception’. When he was born a bright star was seen in the sky. He was known as ‘light’ or ‘the enlightened one’. During his life he performed miracles. As he was dying he said he would ‘return’. When he died, he ascended to heaven and became the planet Venus, the purest and the brightest source of light in the heavens’.

Because the story appears so many times the ‘anti-religion proponents’ reason that the story must be myth, that he never actually lived and that he simply fills the need for an idealised figure of moral leadership in an otherwise immoral world. That is one interpretation, if you choose to exclude the evidence. But the evidence reveals the weakness in the argument. The fact is this, a man called Lord Pacal, who died in around AD740, fits this description perfectly. His bones were found in a pyramid in Palenque. The same goes for the bones of the legendary white Gods that walked the lands of Peru, in around AD350 and AD500, Viracocha and Viracocha Pachacamac, whose bones were found in the pyramids of Peru. The same goes for Tutankhamun, whose bones were found in a tomb in Egypt. So the conclusion reached does not stand up to examination. If different men, born at different times through history, came to Earth and told the same story, the story cannot be a myth. There is only one other rational possibility; the same spiritual energy has reincarnated from age to age bringing the same message to mankind. Ignore that at your peril.

Sources and related links:

Maurice Cotterell: Dispelling the myths about 2012

The Mayan Codex

More on Tortuguero’s Monument 6 and the Prophecy that Wasn’t

The Mayan calendar

The 2012 phenomenon

Image credits:

Deviantart

Hugdablog.com

Mark van Stone website

Oceanworld.tamu.edu

Ancient Peruvian Healers Practiced Sophisticated Cranial Surgery

According to recent study, Peruvian healers practiced cranial surgery more than 1000 years ago.

Researchers excavating burial caves in the south-central Andean province of Andahuaylas in Peru, found evidence that Peruvian healers practiced trepanation – a surgical process that involves removing a section of the cranial vault using a hand drill or a scraping tool – more than 1,000 years ago.

This advanced medical procedure helped to treat a variety of ailments, from head injuries to heartsickness.

What is interesting is that the procedures were performed in the mysterious Wari empire which spread in the southern Andes 16 miles north of present-day Ayacucho and suddenly collapsed. Their knowledge of technology and agricultural practices they adopted from the Huarpa, an earlier civilization that inhabited the Ayacucho region, contributed to high standard of their agriculture.
Their capital was surrounded with irrigated terraces which helped them survive catastrophic droughts. Apparently, these ancient people of Peru were not only skilled in agriculture but also possessed an extraordinary knowledge of surgical practices.

Trepanations first appeared in the south-central Andean highlands during the Early Intermediate Period (ca. AD 200-600), although the technique was not universally practiced. Still, it was considered a viable medical procedure until the Spanish put the kibosh on the practice in the early 16th century, according to Kurin.

“When you get a knock on the head that causes your brain to swell dangerously, or you have some kind of neurological, spiritual or psychosomatic illness, drilling a hole in the head becomes a reasonable thing to do,” said Kurin.

“For about 400 years, from 600 to 1000 AD, the area where I work — the Andahuaylas — was living as a prosperous province within an enigmatic empire known as the Wari,” she said. “For reasons still unknown, the empire suddenly collapsed.”

20131221-103907.jpg
In burial caves in the south-central Andean province of Andahuaylas in Peru, 45 separate trepanation procedures were in evidence.

A practice of drilling holes in the cranium dates back thousands of years and somehow, the knowledge of this extremely advanced medical procedure also reached people in Peru.

Kurin’s research shows various cutting practices and techniques being employed by practitioners around the same time. Some used scraping, others used cutting and still others made use of a hand drill.

20131221-104022.jpg
New bone growth at the trepanation site on the side of the head indicates a successful procedure. However, the holes drilled at the top of the skull were as the individual was dying or shortly after he died.

The study shows that the Peruvian healers tried different techniques and experimented with different ways of cutting into the skull. Sometimes they were successful and the patient recovered, and sometimes things didn’t go so well. “We can tell a trepanation is healed because we see these finger-like projections of bone that are growing, Kurin said.

“The idea with this surgery is to go all the way through the bone, but not touch the brain,” said Kurin. “That takes incredible skill and practice.

Source: Message To Eagle

Image credit

Scientist Finds Evidence Of The Existence Of God

For scientific minds, religious subjects may seem ridiculous. But when they are considered by a scientist, it feels unusual.

Theoretical physicist Michio Kaku claims to have created a theory that may point to the existence of God. The information created uproar in the scientific community.

20131220-124827.jpg Michio Kaku is considered one of the most important scientists of today – one of the developers of the revolutionary String Theory, which is highly respected around the world.

To to come to his conclusions, the physicist made use of what he calls “primitive semi – radius tachyons “.

Tachyons are theoretical particles capable to “unstick ” the Universe matter or vacuum space between matter particles, leaving everything free from the influences of the surrounding universe.

A tachyon /ˈtæki.ɒn/ or tachyonic particle is a hypothetical particle that always moves faster than light. The word comes from the Greek: ταχύς or tachys, meaning “swift, quick, fast, rapid”, and was coined by Gerald Feinberg. Most physicists think that faster-than-light particles cannot exist because they are not consistent with the known laws of physics. If such particles did exist, they could be used to build a tachyonic antitelephone and send signals faster than light, 20131220-124922.jpgwhich (according to special relativity) would lead to violations of causality. Potentially consistent theories that allow faster-than-light particles include those that break Lorentz invariance, the symmetry underlying special relativity, so that the speed of light is not a barrier. (See: Wikipedia/tachyon).

Although the technology to detect the true tachyon particles is still far from being achieved and despite theoretical arguments against the existence of faster-than-light particle, experiments have been conducted to search for them.

The semi – ray used by Kaku, has a few theoretical properties of these particles which are able to create the effect of the real tachyon as it is hypothesized. However, this does not work on a subatomic scale.

After conducting the tests, Kaku came to the conclusion that we live in a “Matrix”.

“I have concluded that we are in a world made by rules created by an intelligence”, he affirmed. “Believe me, everything that we call chance today won’t make sense anymore.”

And he added:
“To me it is clear that we exists in a plan which is governed by rules that were created, shaped by a universal intelligence and not by chance.”

However, Kaku’s tests and conclusions have triggered a scientific debate as scholars argue that no scientific evidence for the actual existence of such particles has ever been found.

Sources: Bubblews, Wikipedia

Related links:

Michio Kaku: Does God exist?
“Physicist are the only scientists who can say that God exists”
Sean Carroll: “What “The God Particle Hath Wrought”