Alien Abductees Over the Moon To Find a Close-Encounter Group

HASTINGS, England—Telling your family and friends that you’ve been abducted by aliens is hard. Even harder is revealing to them you may actually be part extraterrestrial.

A team of self-described alien investigators recently delivered that second bit of news to Adam Chatterton, 34 years old, a normal-looking Englishman. Using a technique known as “dowsing,” the team says it identified residues on Mr. Chatterton suggesting he may have otherworldly origins.

Mr. Chatterton, who manages a riding stable, took the revelation in stride. “It wasn’t that much of a shock,” he said, adding that he suspected as much for some time.

The tests on Mr. Chatterton were arranged by Joanne Summerscales, founder of the Anomalous Mind Management, Abductee, Contactee, Helpline Project, or AMMACH. The British group provides counseling and support to people who have had the troubling experience of believing they have had contact with aliens.

Mr. Chatterton and around 40 others convened last month in this seaside town for AMMACH’s annual conference, which aims to encourage close encounters with people who claim to have had close encounters. Admission was £45, or about $75, including a light lunch of quiche and salad.

This year’s conference may come at a particularly important time. Ms. Summerscales and others at the meeting say our intergalactic neighbors may be close to revealing themselves to the public at large, an event that would have important implications in many areas.

“It changes everything about everything,” Ms. Summerscales said. “So it’s quite big.”

Scientists say it is certainly possible that intelligent life exists somewhere in the universe, even probable depending on the number of Earth-like planets out there and a few other conditions. But the odds that aliens hit Earth out of the vast cosmic dartboard and had the technological capability to make the trip are extremely low, they say.

Such arguments carry little weight with many people. A Reuters Ipsos poll of 23,000 adults across the world in 2010 found that 20% not only believe aliens exist but say they even walk among us disguised as people.

ImageIn the three years since founding her group, Ms. Summerscales, who doesn’t recall being abducted herself, says she has been in touch with around 1,500 people who say they have had contact with aliens. People like Mike Smith, who in a speech at the conference said that he had been contacted and abducted multiple times by otherworldly entities—perhaps aliens, perhaps creatures from another dimension.

“I don’t want to be a nutter who’s been abducted,” said Mr. Smith, 64, a traveling musician, “but I am.”

Many at the conference rejected the “nutter” label. Geoffrey Crockford, a retired occupational hygienist who is a member of the team that tested Mr. Chatterton, said his team’s discoveries show aliens have visited and continue to visit the Earth.

The group spends much of its time hopscotching around Europe, identifying supposed alien burial and spacecraft landing sites. They use metal dowsing rods, which are held parallel and then swing into a crossed position, they say, in the presence of elements, such as iridium, supposedly left behind by extraterrestrials. Iridium is a rare element in the Earth’s crust, but is often found in meteorites.

What do the aliens want? It is unclear, but they probably mean no harm, Mr. Crockford said at the conference. He suspects they abide by some sort of cosmic convention that forbids harming other intelligent life.

“The one thing we’re worried about is they found out what we’re doing, and that would blow their cover,” Mr. Crockford said. “Then they might react to that.”

A reporter asked him whether it was possible that aliens read The Wall Street Journal.

“Probably not,” Mr. Crockford said.

Reports of alien abduction in the U.K. and elsewhere have become more frequent and complex since the 1960s, when an American couple’s alleged encounter with a spacecraft in New Hampshire became one of the first widely publicized abduction stories.

“What you find is that they’re all trying to outdo each other,” said David Clarke, a journalism professor at Sheffield Hallam University who has studied reports of alien abduction but doesn’t believe in them. “Not only do you have to be abducted, you’ve got to have had hybrid babies with them as well.”

Take Simon Parkes, for example: a driving instructor and Labour Party town councilor in Whitby, who told Ms. Summerscales in a videotaped interview several years ago that he was taken by an alien he called the Cat Queen, who later bore him a child named Zarka. Also, his real mother is a green alien with eight fingers, he said.

Many discussions about alien abduction come down to two questions: Are they making it up? And if not, are they crazy? But Mr. Parkes said in an interview that he rarely hears such questions.

“The interesting thing is, I announced all this, and then I was elected,” Mr. Parkes said. “I’m the man who fixes the streetlights when they’re not working.”

The U.K. Ministry of Defence was for a while an object of scrutiny for the alien obsessed. The military had a classified program starting in the 1950s that monitored UFO reports, but the task of responding to the public’s inquiries became too onerous. The government closed it during budget cuts in 2009, at which point the entire program consisted of one person behind a desk.

“The Ministry of Defence has no expertise or role in respect of UFO/flying saucer matters or to the question of the existence or otherwise of extraterrestrial life-forms, about which it remains totally open-minded,” the UFO desk officer wrote in one of many declassified documents now in the U.K. National Archives that appear to contain no evidence of alien contact with humans.

Colin Woodford, a retired British Airways ground-crew worker attending the conference, doubts the government released all its UFO files. “They’re just putting out some froth,” he said.

As the meeting ended, Nigel Hughes, a member of Mr. Crockford’s team, announced a special attraction: “a pair of trousers from a well-documented U.F.O. encounter.”

The pants belonged to a man who reported being dragged along the ground in Scotland by an alien spacecraft in 1979.

“We’re very fortunate,” Mr. Hughes said.

Soon, Mr. Crockford was waving his dowsing rods over the torn black pants, as a crowd looked on. The results were inconclusive.

Source: The Wallstreet Journal

Image credit: http://www.superbwallpapers.com/fantasy/alien-abduction-20886/

Advertisements

NASA Reports Mysterious Signal From Outer Space

By:

NASA has detected a mysterious signal from deep outer space. The signal was detected using the agency’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and ESA’s XMM-Newton. One intriguing possibility is that the X-rays are produced by the decay of sterile neutrinos, a type of particle that has been proposed as a candidate for dark matter.

“We know that the dark matter explanation is a long shot, but the pay-off would be huge if we’re right,” said Esra Bulbul of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass. who led the study. “So we’re going to keep testing this interpretation and see where it takes us.”

While the NASA X-ray mysterious signal holds exciting potential, these results must be confirmed with additional data to rule out other explanations and determine whether it is plausible that dark matter has been observed.

Astronomers think dark matter constitutes 85% of the matter in the Universe, but does not emit or absorb light like “normal” matter such as protons, neutrons and electrons that make up the familiar elements observed in planets, stars, and galaxies. Because of this, scientists must use indirect methods to search for clues about dark matter.

NASA’s latest mysterious signal results from Chandra and XMM-Newton consist of an unidentified X-ray emission line, that is, a spike of intensity at a very specific wavelength of X-ray light. Astronomers detected this emission line in the Perseus galaxy cluster using both Chandra and XMM-Newton. They also found the line in a combined study of 73 other galaxy clusters with XMM-Newton.

The authors suggest this emission line could be a signature from the decay of a “sterile neutrino.” Sterile neutrinos are a hypothetical type of neutrino that is predicted to interact with normal matter only via gravity. Some scientists have proposed that sterile neutrinos may at least partially explain dark matter.

“We have a lot of work to do before we can claim, with any confidence, that we’ve found sterile neutrinos,” said Maxim Markevitch, a co-author from NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “But just the possibility of finding them has us very excited.”

NASA says the mysterious signal has one source of uncertainty. The detection of this emission line is pushing the capabilities of the two observatories in terms of sensitivity. Also, there may be explanations other than sterile neutrinos if this X-ray emission line is deemed to be real.

There are ways that normal matter in the cluster could have produced the line, although the team’s analysis suggested that all of these would involve unlikely changes to our understanding of physical conditions in the galaxy cluster or the details of the atomic physics of extremely hot gases.

The NASA authors of this mysterious signal note that even if the sterile neutrino interpretation is correct, their detection does not necessarily imply that all of dark matter is composed of these particles. As previously reported by NewsOXY, scientists found a newly discovered water planet in 2012. It is located in the right distance from its sun to hold life.

Source: Newsoxy.com

Cancer Breakthrough: Researchers Find Treatment That Kills Every Kind Of Cancer Tumor

Researchers might have found the Holy Grail in the war against cancer, a miracle drug that has killed every kind of cancer tumor it has come in contact with.

The drug works by blocking a protein called CD47 that is essentially a “do not eat” signal to the body’s immune system, according to Science Magazine.

This protein is produced in healthy blood cells but researchers at Stanford University found that cancer cells produced an inordinate amount of the protein thus tricking the immune system into not destroying the harmful cells.

With this observation in mind, the researchers built an antibody that blocked cancer’s CD47 so that the body’s immune system attacked the dangerous cells.

So far, researchers have used the antibody in mice with human breast, ovary, colon, bladder, brain, liver and prostate tumors transplanted into them. In each of the cases the antibody forced the mice’s immune system to kill the cancer cells.

“We showed that even after the tumor has taken hold, the antibody can either cure the tumor or slow its growth and prevent metastasis,” said biologist Irving Weissman of the Stanford University School of Medicine in Palo Alto, California.

One side effect of the treatment was that healthy cells were subjected to short-term attacks by the mice’s immune system, but the effect was nothing in comparison to the damage done to the cancer cells.

Weissman’s group recently received a $20 million dollar grant to move their research from mouse to human safety testing.

Reposted from: nypost

The Red-Haired Race And The Atlantean Connection: III The Americas

Peru_Nazca_AstronautThe myths of Native Americans sustain that when their ancestors arrived in the Americas, they met an already existing population in the new lands, which they describe as mythical beings.
Was there an unknown culture on the American continent the existence of which goes back to before the last Ice Age? Who were they?
To find some elements that might support this idea, we need to have a look at modern DNA testing.
DNA – the European connection

According to the prevailing New World migration model, migrations of humans from Eurasia to the Americas took place via Beringia, a land bridge that connected the two continents across what is now the Bering Strait. The most recent migration could have taken place around 12,000 years ago, with the earliest period remaining a matter of some unresolved contention. These early Paleo-Indians soon spread throughout the continent, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes.
However, modern DNA analysis sheds some new light on this theory, leaving scholars with more questions than answers.
In molecular evolution, a haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor. A haplogroup from mitochondrial DNA can be understood as a marker that can be used to define genetic populations and their migrations. In human genetics, the haplogroups most commonly studied are Y-chromosome (Y-DNA) haplogroups and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, both of which can be used to backtrack the migrations and geographical origins of our ancestors.
There are five different haplogroups found within the native tribes of the Americas. In this article and for the purpose, we will focus on only one of them: the haplogroup X.
Haplogroup X is believed to be one of the original haplogroups of the continent. It is present in all indigenous people, with a bigger concentration in some tribes and areas than in others.
Unlike the four main Native American mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C, D), and the Y-chromosome sub-haplogroup Q1a3a, X is not at all strongly associated with East Asia. It is only found in small quantities in Western Asian areas, like in the Altay people in Southwestern Siberia. However, it is found in approximately 7% of native Europeans, and 3% of all Native Americans from North America.
The question that arises from these discoveries is of course:
If the Native Americans migrated once over the Bering Bridge to the Americas and originated in Asia, how is it possible that haplogroup X exists in the Americas and in Europe, but not in (Eastern) Asian populations?

lost-civilizations-3-figure.jpgEuropean genes: the scientific debate about the migration into the American continent

Through the analysis of various mutations within haplogroup X, scientists are able to use that “genetic clock” to estimate the time of arrival of those early Europeans. Depending on how large a group they assume headed west, they come up with two time ranges – either between 36,000 and 23,000 years ago or between 17,000 and 12,000 years ago. It is for sure that the DNA did not arrive in America with the European explorers of the last 500 years or so. European X and American X are different enough to establish with certainty they must have diverged thousands of years ago. That is long before the age of exploration introduced European genes to the New World. Interestingly, DNA testing on pre-Columbian Native American skeletal remains showed that haplogroup X was present in those ancient peoples in the same proportion as it is in modern Native American tribes.
The results offer a completely new look on how the American continent was populated and confirm that the cultural similarities between ancient peoples on different continents might be much more than just a coincidence. Scientists try to explain these facts with new theories about the population of the New World. They believe that the Solutreans of Spain might have crossed the Atlantic using the southern Equatorial current and entered the Caribbean and Central America between 18,000 and 12,000 years ago. They would then become known as the Clovis hunters of America. Clovis, with its distinctive biface, blade and osseous technologies, is the oldest widespread archaeological complex defined in North America, dating from 11,100 to 10,700 years before present (13,000 to 12,600 calendar years bp). However, the DNA analysis of a child’s bones from 12,600 years ago, discovered in the U.S. state Montana, made scientists conclude that those early inhabitants of the American continent migrated to the Americas from Siberia and are therefore of Asian origin.
The recent genetic findings mentioned above suggest also that the people now known as Gaelic speaking Celts (including Irish, Welsh, Scots, Basques and Berbers) are a remnant of a group of people who also left Spain between 18,000 and 12,000 years ago and spent 6,000 years isolated from Europe before returning, bringing the Megalithic culture to coastal Europe.
Considering the cultural findings of the populations in Europe from 18,000 years ago, the question arises whether it is realistic to suppose that those people were able to travel across the ocean to reach the American East cost. Which was the motivation for them to migrate and how did they know that there was another continent on the other side? And if they didn’t know – why would they undertake such a possibly fatal adventure?
These questions remain, until now, unanswered.

Legends

The Paiutes, a Native-American tribe indigenous to parts of Nevada, Utah and Arizona, told early white settlers about their ancestors’ battles with a ferocious race of white, red-haired giants. According to the Paiutes, the giants were already living in the area.
Interestingly, this corresponds to an Egyptian popular, allegorical legend that seems to report the war-like conflicts between the gods and an evil red-haired race. The legend influenced Egyptian Afterlife traditions and led to the human sacrifice of red-haired people. Later on, as already stated in previous articles, Egypt suddenly had a red-haired king. And while this is a fact that researchers accept saying “the customs had changed in the new kingdom”, one wonders what may have happened to make Egyptian people worship a pharaoh who seemingly was the descendant of their lethal enemy.
Other tribes on the American continent describe the people that their ancestors found at their arrival on the continent as mythical beings with super natural powers. This corresponds to important legends of Central and South American peoples.
The Mayas and POMA0106vAztecs recorded their encounters with a race of giants that lived in the north, and everywhere in the populations of the Andes Mountains we find the same legend of a tall, bearded man with fair skin who appeared coming over the ocean. He arrived in times of great trouble when the sun had disappeared and flood had devastated Earth. They called him Viracocha.
The stranger was a man of incredible knowledge. He was a great architect, scientist, engineer and mason. He was generous and loving and taught people how to make a better living for themselves. He was tall, physically strong and had mythical powers that enabled him to form landscapes and create water springs. He told the people to treat each other with love and respect and do good for others.
One day a group of people in a village stood up against him and threatened him physically. As he was in danger, the man suddenly fell on his knees and lifted up his hands towards the sky, and instantly a fire appeared from the heavens then engulfed him and the people who had aggressed him. They were so frightened that they dropped all weapons, seeking forgiveness.
At his willpower, the fire disappeared. But the bearded man went down to the ocean and stepped into the waves. He promised to come back, but he was never seen again.
The people who witnessed his farewell called him “Viracocha”, which means “Foam of the Ocean”.
Nobody knows who the Viracocha was. Ancient Spanish documents report that a marble statue of the Viracocha existed once in Coriancha in Peru. The statue was described as to look like Saint Bartholomeus. Other sources said that it looked like Saint Thomas.
One thing is for sure: whoever he was, the Viracocha was certainly not a Native American, but rather someone of Caucasian appearance.
A similar story is told about the Mesoamerican deity Quetzalcoatl.
The name originates from Nahuatl language and means “feather serpent”. Many depictions show him exactly as that.
The legends say that Quetzacoatl arrived coming from the ocean to the land that today is Mexico. He was described as a tall man with light skin and a beard and as a powerful if also ethereal being.
Quetzacoatl brought the peoples of the area great knowledge. He was a mathematician, and it is believed that he was the one who gave the Mayas their complex calendar, based on his formulas.
The Spanish who have documented the conquest of America describe the being they had heard of as a man with light skin with a long beard, tall and with a high forehead, big hazel eyes and physically strong. He refused blood sacrifices and predicated peace. 7163838
Throughout the continent, Quetzacoatl was called with different names. In Chichen Itzá he was called Kukulcan, and the Quiché-Maya called him Gucumatz. Both names again mean “feathered serpent”. Other names for him were Itzamana and Votan. All these Gods brought culture and knowledge to the peoples that came in contact with them. All of them came across the ocean, and all of them went back into the waters with the promise to come back.
It is very unlikely that the parallels in these legends are mere coincidence. Did the Native Americans imagine people of Caucasian appearance long before the first Europeans arrived on the continent? Or is it possible that they had actually seen such people before the arrival of the official discoverers?
It is said today by scholars that the Spaniards who documented the conquest of Mesoamerica, might have changed the stories told to them in a way that Mesoamerican deities became more and more similar to Europeans. But it is a widely known story that when the Spanish Conquistadores under Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro reached the shores of what is today Mexico, the Aztec King Montezuma and his people went to greet the visitors and honored them as returning Gods. The Aztecs were warriors and certainly conscious of the possibility that strangers who appeared at their coasts might not have come with peaceful intentions. If the description of a light skinned and bearded Quetzalcoatl were the mere fantasy of the Spaniards, why did the Aztecs consider them returning Gods?

Red-haired mummies of the Americas: survivors of a sunken continent?

In North America, red-haired mummies have been found in Michigan, Illinois, New York State, Virgina, Arizona and Nevada.
In South America, red-haired mummies and giant humanoid bones have been unearthed in Peru, Brazil, Chile, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Columbia.
71690219-mummies-the The finds had a major impact on common theories about early populations and their migrations and changed the widely accepted theory of the population of the Americas entirely, enhanced by modern genetic research. The debate stretches from theories about different simultaneous migrations into the Americas to claims about racist intentions.
Fact is, however, that up to the current day, nobody has a clear answer to the allover question: how is it possible that there are genetic and cultural similarities in ancient populations in many places on the globe, very distant from each other, if we assume that the cultures in those places had no direct contact? With the latest DNA results, scientists saw themselves forced to drop this latter claim. Yet, any kind of contact doesn’t explain why red-haired mummies are found all over the globe, and why the cultural impact on all other peoples was so striking. And it has yet to be found out which human race’s members were taller than modern man and characterized by red hair.
Not later than now, the question arises: was there eventually an earlier civilization, possibly highly advanced, that migrated into other continents? And if so, what were their motivations? Were they just a belligerent, aggressive people who wanted to expand and subdue all other populations? But then again, who were they? Common history about human ancestry has ignored those people’s existence entirely. They weren’t actually known until the evidence of their existence popped up with the discoveries of the mummies. So, where was their home place? Where did they originate from? Were they really descendants of European races? Or are the European races rather descendants from a people that at some point landed on European shores? Are they the so called “Civilization X”, the mysterious culture previous to everything we know about the history of mankind?

Atlantis

Many hypothesis of the location of the mythical continent Atlantis have been made since Plato mentioned it in his works Timaeus and Critias. Many researchers consider it a great possibility that it was somewhere in the Atlantic Ocean. When it sank into the floods, some people could have managed to escape and reached the shores of distant continents. They might have brought their knowledge and culture to other tribes and peoples; they might have come in confAthanasius_Kircher's_Atlantislict with them or tried to subdue them. However, this hypothesis would solve the DNA riddle, and explain apparently incomprehensible similarities in the different cultures. It would explain why the mysterious tall redheads appear in the tales of cultures that live far away from each other and why their mummified remains are being found in the most unthinkable places all over the globe.
Unfortunately, when we search for official information about the mythical continent, we find out that its real existence keeps not being considered a possibility by scholars.
In Wikipedia, the article about Atlantis opens with the words: “Atlantis (…) is the name of a fictional island mentioned within an allegory on the hubris of nations in Plato’s works Timaeus and Critias, where it represents the antagonist naval power that besieges “Ancient Athens”, the pseudo-historic embodiment of Plato’s ideal.”
Nevertheless, the fascination by the story and the search for hints for its real existence will likely never cease. Atlantis would have existed in a very distant time. Swallowed by the ocean, it left no considerable trace of its existence. Therefore, for modern science it remains a fairy tale.
Nevertheless, putting together lose ends researching genetic and anthropological mysteries, the sunken continent offers a much better explanation than many scientific theories of today.

 

 

Sources:
http://users.on.net/~mkfenn/page9.htm
http://badarchaeology.wordpress.com/2014/02/15/the-paracas-skulls-aliens-an-unknown-hominid-species-or-cranial-deformation
http://frontiers-of-anthropology.blogspot.de/2012/04/redhaired-mummies-and-giants-of-united.html
http://www.pbs.org/saf/1406/features/dna2.htm
http://ironlight.wordpress.com/2010/07/10/nevadas-mysterious-cave-of-the-red-haired-giants/
http://blog.world-mysteries.com/ancient-writings/the-red-haired-race/
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v506/n7487/full/nature13025.html
http://www.heritagedaily.com/2014/02/origins-of-americas-first-humans/102120
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/mummies_01.shtml

Fernando S. Gallegos, “The Ancients”

Image credit: http://www.louiethomas.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/atlantis3.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

‘Time Crystals’ Could Upend Physicists’ Theory of Time

By Natalie Wolchover, Simons Science News

 

In February 2012, the Nobel Prize-winning physicist Frank Wilczek decided to go public with a strange and, he worried, somewhat embarrassing idea. Impossible as it seemed, Wilczek had developed an apparent proof of “time crystals” — physical structures that move in a repeating pattern, like minute hands rounding clocks, without expending energy or ever winding down. Unlike clocks or any other known objects, time crystals derive their movement not from stored energy but from a break in the symmetry of time, enabling a special form of perpetual motion.

“Most research in physics is continuations of things that have gone before,” said Wilczek, a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This, he said, was “kind of outside the box.”

Wilczek’s idea met with a muted response from physicists. Here was a brilliant professor known for developing exotic theories that later entered the mainstream, including the existence of particles called axions and anyons, and discovering a property of nuclear forces known as asymptotic freedom (for which he shared the Nobel Prize in physics in 2004).But perpetual motion, deemed impossible by the fundamental laws of physics, was hard to swallow. Did the work constitute a major breakthrough or faulty logic? Jakub Zakrzewski, a professor of physics and head of atomic optics at Jagiellonian University in Poland who wrote a perspective on the research that accompanied Wilczek’s publication, says: “I simply don’t know.”

Now, a technological advance has made it possible for physicists to test the idea. They plan to build a time crystal, not in the hope that this perpetuum mobile will generate an endless supply of energy (as inventors have striven in vain to do for more than a thousand years) but that it will yield a better theory of time itself.

A Crazy Concept

The idea came to Wilczek while he was preparing a class lecture in 2010. “I was thinking about the classification of crystals, and then it just occurred to me that it’s natural to think about space and time together,” he said. “So if you think about crystals in space, it’s very natural also to think about the classification of crystalline behavior in time.”

When matter crystallizes, its atoms spontaneously organize themselves into the rows, columns and stacks of a three-dimensional lattice. An atom occupies each “lattice point,” but the balance of forces between the atoms prevents them from inhabiting the space between. Because the atoms suddenly have a discrete, rather than continuous, set of choices for where to exist, crystals are said to break the spatial symmetry of nature — the usual rule that all places in space are equivalent. But what about the temporal symmetry of nature — the rule that stable objects stay the same throughout time?

Wilczek mulled over the possibility for months. Eventually, his equations indicated that atoms could indeed form a regularly repeating lattice in time, returning to their initial arrangement only after discrete (rather than continuous) intervals, thereby breaking time symmetry. Without consuming or producing energy, time crystals would be stable, in what physicists call their “ground state,” despite cyclical variations in structure that scientists say can be interpreted as perpetual motion.

“For a physicist, this is really a crazy concept to think of a ground state which is time-dependent,” said Hartmut Häffner, a quantum physicist at the University of California, Berkeley. “The definition of a ground state is that this is energy-zero. But if the state is time-dependent, that implies that the energy changes or something is changing. Something is moving around.”

How can something move, and keep moving forever, without expending energy? It seemed an absurd idea — a major break from the accepted laws of physics. But Wilczek’s papers on quantum and classical time crystals (the latter co-authored by Alfred Shapere of the University of Kentucky) survived a panel of expert reviewers and were published in Physical Review Letters in October 2012. Wilczek didn’t claim to know whether objects that break the symmetry of time exist in nature, but he wanted experimentalists to try to make one.

“It’s like you draw targets and wait for arrows to hit them,” he said. “If there’s no logical barrier to this behavior being realized, then I expect it will be realized.”

The Big Test

In June, a group of physicists led by Xiang Zhang, a nanoengineer at Berkeley, and Tongcang Li, a physicist and postdoctoral researcher in Zhang’s group, proposed creating a time crystal in the form of a persistently rotating ring of charged atoms, or ions. (Li said he had been contemplating the idea before reading Wilczek’s papers.) The group’s article was published with Wilczek’s in Physical Review Letters.

Since then, a single critic — Patrick Bruno, a theoretical physicist at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in France — has voiced dissent in the academic literature. Bruno thinks Wilczek and company mistakenly identified time-dependent behavior of objects in excited energetic states, rather than their ground states. There is nothing surprising about objects with surplus energy moving in a cyclical fashion, with the motion decaying as the energy dissipates. To be a time crystal, an object must exhibit perpetual motion in its ground state.

Bruno’s comment and Wilczek’s reply appeared in Physical Review Letters in March 2013. Bruno demonstrated that a lower energy state is possible in a model system that Wilczek had proposed as a hypothetical example of a quantum time crystal. Wilczek said that although the example is not a time crystal, he doesn’t think the error “calls into question the basic concepts.”

“I proved that example is not correct,” Bruno said. “But I have no general proof — so far, at least.”

The debate will probably not be settled on theoretical grounds. “The ball is really in the hands of our very clever experimental colleagues,” Zakrzewski said.

An international team led by Berkeley scientists is preparing an elaborate lab experiment, although it may take “anywhere between three and infinity years” to complete, depending on funding or unforeseen technical difficulties, said Häffner, who is co-principal investigator with Zhang. The hope is that time crystals will push physics beyond the precise but seemingly imperfect laws of quantum mechanics and lead the way to a grander theory.

“I’m very interested in seeing if I can make a new contribution following Einstein,” Li said. “He said that quantum mechanics is not complete.”

Read full article here