The 7 Most Haunted College Campuses In The World

Happy Halloween!
Pursuing a higher education comes with a price.

by 10/25/2014

Oh, wait, I’m sorry, were you thrown off by that last part? Basically, what I meant to say was that for some students, the college struggle goes beyond the academic and into the realm of the supernatural. Below, find the seven scariest real-life hauntings on college campuses:

7. Fordham University

tumblr_mc3vw5e67S1rdutw3o1_500The Bronx campus of Fordham University is gorgeous, but it also comes with icy ghost hands that will grab your shoulders in Keating Hall — the basement of which was once an old hospital morgue, if you believe the local legends. Also, ladies, be sure to say hi to the blonde ghost that haunts the shower room, even though she’ll never talk back. (She’s the silent type.)

6. Nagasaki University

Grudge-tumblr_static_2Nearly 70 years after the atomic bomb hit Nagasaki, “screams, cries, and the smell of burning flesh” have all been reported from both students and visitors.

5. University of Illinois

tumblr_m7yz18l82x1roaheko1_500Thinking about pursuing higher education at the University of Illinois? Great! Just hope you’re okay with the faceless man who terrorizes the student body. Legend has it, more than one student was found hanged in their closet after encounters with ‘Ol Facey.

4. Heidelberg University

39705-Clown-DemonWomen in Nazi Germany went through forced sterilization at the university’s clinic due to Hitler’s eugenic movement, and at nightfall, you can still hear them weeping. Understandably. Also, at least two Jewish professors were murdered in the Holocaust, and in their former classrooms, the the chalkboards have been known to “self-erase” and randomly produce strange words, written by no one.

3. Oxford University

Nearly_Headless_NickEngland’s famous Oxford University, the oldest in the English-speaking world, has a number of famous ghosts. Like, literally famous — the ghost of Colonel Francis Winderbank haunts Merton College library, while the headless spirit of Archbishop William Laud hangs out in the St. John’s College library.

2. University of Toronto

tumblr_m9h84pieeA1rdq2opo1_500In the 1850s, a stonemason named Ivan Reznikoff tried to kill his rival, Paul Diabolos, with an axe — supposedly over a shared lover. Diabolos supposedly got the better of Reznikoff and murdered him, hiding his body somewhere in the building. Now, there are three pieces of evidence that support this banana-pants story — one, the still-visible axe marks on a door where Reznikoff swung, two, skeletal remains found in the building after a fire, and three, the personal account of future respected lawyer and parliamentarian Allen Bristol Aylesworth, who personally spoke with a man claiming to be Reznikoff’s ghost.

1. Ohio University

tumblr_mdwtddaXa71qlr7ydo1_500Fox once shot an episode of “Scariest Places on Earth” here, due to its numerous reported paranormal incidents. Wilson Hall, in particular, is located in the middle of a pentagram consisting of five cemeteries, and a student’s reported death in room 428 in the 1970s led to subsequent residents of the room reporting paranormal activity. Legend has it, a second student later died in the same room after practicing witchcraft, and it’s been vacant and boarded up ever since.

Oh, and did we mention that there was a mental institution built next to the university, compete with a cemetery mostly populated by unmarked graves? And that there’s another dorm where a female student, Laura, fell to her death, and ever since then Bob Marley’s “Laura” won’t play on any musical device?

See more at: MTV.com

Original article at: MTV.com

Vitamin K: The Link To Longevity

By Judy Ramirez 

sep2014_tslbovk_02Dr. Bruce Ames is one of the world’s leading authorities on aging and nutrition. Four years ago, Dr. Ames published research indicating that optimum intake of vitamin K plays an important role in longevity.1

A new 2014 study on vitamin K confirms that ample vitamin K intake can indeed help you live longer.2 In a group of more than 7,000 people at high risk for cardiovascular disease, people with the highest intake of vitamin K were 36% less likely to die from any cause at all, compared with those having the lowest intake.

This protection even extended to those with initially low vitamin K intake who boosted their consumption during the course of the study—demonstrating that it’s never too late to start gaining the benefits of vitamin K supplementation. Increasing intake conferred protection against cardiovascular death as well.2

Vitamin K is capable of opposing many of the leading causes of death in modern-day Americans—including atherosclerosis,3 osteoporosis,4 diabetes,5,6 and cancer2,7—because it has the unique ability to activate proteins involved in these conditions.

In this article, we will review a host of new studies that detail the impact of vitamin K supplementation on preventing these and other major age-related diseases.

Risk Reduction By Increased Vitamin K Intake

Condition Vitamin K Form Risk Reduction
All-Cause
Mortality
K2 26% (Highest vs. Lowest Intake)3
All-Cause
Mortality
K1 36% (Highest vs. Lowest Intake)2
Cancer K1 46% (Highest vs. Lowest Intake)2
Cancer, Advanced
Prostate
K2 63% (Highest vs. Lowest Intake)7
Cancer
Death
K2 28% (Highest vs. Lowest Intake)54
Coronary
Artery Calcification
K2 20% (Highest vs. Lowest Intake)30
Coronary Heart Disease K1 21% (Highest vs. Lowest Intake)66
Coronary Heart Disease K2 9% lower risk for each 10 microgram/d increased intake67
Coronary Heart Disease Mortality K2 57% (Highest vs. Lowest Intake)3
Metabolic Syndrome K1 27% for having low HDL-cholesterol*
49% for having elevated triglycerides*
82% for having high blood sugar*
(All Highest vs. Lowest Intake)68
Type II
Diabetes
K2 7% lower risk for each 10 microgram/d increased intake5
Type II
Diabetes
K1 17% reduction for each 100 microgram/d increased intake6
Type II Diabetes K1 51% with increased K1 intake vs. decreased or no change in intake6
*Based off of odds ratios

 

The Many Benefits Of Vitamin K

Vitamin K was first discovered in 1935, when it was found to be an essential nutrient to prevent abnormal bleeding in chickens.8 For decades thereafter, vitamin K was identified as the “coagulation vitamin” (in fact, the initial “K” comes from the German spelling, koagulation). During that time, it was established that vitamin K worked by activating certain proteins made in the liver that are required for normal blood clotting. Without sufficient vitamin K, blood would not clot, and severe bleeding would ensue.9,10

Vitamin K activates those blood-clotting proteins by making a small but vital chemical change in the proteins’ structure, specifically on the protein building block called glutamic acid.11

By the turn of the 21st century, scientists had learned that vitamin K produces similar changes to glutamic acid molecules to activate a handful of other vital proteins in the body, with the collective name of Gla-proteins.12-16 According to 2014 research, 16 different vitamin K-dependent Gla-proteins have been identified.17 This means that they depend on vitamin K to activate them in order to carry out their intended role.

With the discovery of the Gla-proteins, scientists learned that vitamin K is vital for much more than the healthy clotting of blood. For example, the Gla-protein in bone, called osteocalcin, is responsible for making sure calcium is deposited in bones, while the Gla-protein in arterial walls, called matrix Gla protein, prevents calcium from being deposited in arteries.18

Insufficient blood clotting was thought to be the main sign of vitamin K deficiency. However, scientists have since learned that you can have enough vitamin K to promote healthy blood clotting, yet still not have enough vitamin K for it to activate the Gla-proteins necessary to help prevent cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, and cancer, all conditions in which vitamin K-dependent proteins are known to be factors.13,14,19 Fortunately, studies show that vitamin K supplementation can significantly increase the amount of activated Gla-proteins in tissues—without over-activating the clotting proteins.18

Vitamin K And Atherosclerosis

As we age, calcium that belongs in our bones begins to make its appearance in other unwanted areas, including inside the linings of major arteries.20 Over time, normal smooth muscle cells in artery walls transform into bone-like cells through the deposition of calcium, essentially turning sections of artery into bony tissue that is not resilient and flexible, and does not have the ability to effectively regulate blood flow.19,21 This process lends literal reality to the term “hardening of the arteries,” which we now know as late-stage atherosclerosis.

Nature has provided a powerful inhibitor of arterial calcification in the form of matrix Gla protein, one of the 16 Gla-proteins activated by vitamin K. This specific Gla-protein is produced in arterial walls, but is only activated when sufficient vitamin K is present.3,14,15,19,22-24 In the absence of sufficient vitamin K, arterial calcification is able to continue unopposed, leading to advanced atherosclerosis and its deadly consequences, heart attacks and strokes.14,16 Indeed, in older men and women who had the highest levels of inactive matrix Gla protein (indicating low vitamin K levels), there was a nearly 3-fold increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared to those with the lowest levels.23

Researchers have known for nearly 20 years that insufficient vitamin K intake in the diet is related to atherosclerosis in the aorta, the body’s largest blood vessel.16 Since that time, a host of basic science and laboratory studies have indicated that higher vitamin K intake is essential for preventing atherosclerosis in major vessels of all kinds. Animal studies even show that vitamin K can “rescue” calcified arteries that occur as a result of the overuse of drugs that inhibit vitamin K, such as certain blood thinners.25,26

Another way matrix Gla proteins help protect against atherosclerosis is by inhibiting the production of inflammatory signaling molecules (cytokines), which contribute to plaque formation and calcification.27 People with the highest dietary intake of vitamin K have significantly lower levels of those inflammatory markers, and also of substances involved in appetite generation and insulin resistance, both of which are important in preventing atherosclerosis.28 (Some of these effects may be related to increased levels of another vitamin K-dependent Gla-protein that suppresses inflammation and promotes glucose tolerance.) 29

Human Studies On Vitamin K

sep2014_tslbovk_03  Human studies on dietary vitamin K intake have been somewhat inconsistent, probably because of confusion about which form of the vitamin is most iVit K 2mportant.30

Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) is the main dietary form of the vitamin, but vitamin K2 (menaquinone) has a stronger relationship to arterial calcification.15

In one study, people with the highest intake of vitamin K2 were 57% less likely to die of coronary heart disease compared with those with the lowest intake.3 In another study, women with the highest intake of vitamin K2 were found to be at a 20% lower risk for coronary artery calcification compared with women with the lowest intake levels, while the same study found that vitamin K1 had no significant impact.30

Vitamin K supplementation studies suggest that both forms of the vitamin contribute to protection from arterial calcification in atherosclerosis, with a slight edge for vitamin K2. For example, when healthy men and postmenopausal women supplemented with 500 micrograms of vitamin K1 per day, they experienced a modest 6% reduction in the progression of arterial calcification, but only in subjects with the most advanced disease at baseline.22 And a study using vitamin K1 in combination with vitamin D and minerals demonstrated that the combined supplement could slow the loss of arterial suppleness and promote elasticity.14

Similarly, supplementation with both 180 and 360 micrograms of vitamin K2 significantly reduced the amounts of inactivated matrix Gla protein, thereby lowering the risk of atherosclerosis with calcification; placebo recipients in that study showed no effect.31 In another study, a group of kidney disease patients on hemodialysis (who have a very high risk for advanced atherosclerosis with calcification) took either 135 or 360 micrograms of vitamin K2. Supplementation dramatically decreased the amount of inactivated matrix Gla protein by 77% at the lower dose, and 93% at the higher dose.32

Intriguingly, it is now apparent that women with atherosclerosis are more likely to have lower bone mass than women without atherosclerosis. They’re also more likely to have lower circulating vitamin K levels, highlighting the age-related trade-off between calcium in bones (which is desirable) and calcium in arterial walls (which is undesirable).20

Vitamin K And Osteoporosis

Sufficient vitamin K is also required in order to activate the Gla-protein osteocalcin, which binds tightly to bone minerals to create strong bones.33 With inadequate vitamin K, bones can’t hold on to vital calcium, which leads to osteoporosis.34 To make matters worse, the calcium has to go somewhere, so it enters the bloodstream, where it contributes to stiffening arteries.33

Fortunately, supplementation with vitamin K is an effective means of protecting your bones from osteoporosis.

A study of healthy postmenopausal women between 50 and 60 years old demonstrated that three years of supplementation with 1 mg/day of vitamin K1, plus 8 micrograms (320 IU)/day of vitamin D together with minerals, reduced the loss of bone in the hip and spine compared both to placebo recipients and to those supplemented with vitamin D and minerals alone.35

In another study, postmenopausal women with pre-existing osteoporosis took 1,500 mg of calcium carbonate and 45 mg of vitamin K2 or placebo each day for 48 weeks. Compared to baseline values, the women experienced an increase in spinal bone mineral density and a 55.9% reduction in inactive osteocalcin levels, while a 9.3% reduction occurred in the group taking only the calcium supplement.36 The same dose of K2 was later shown to maintain hip bone strength and improve the overall geometry of the femoral neck over a three-year period, while placebo recipients lost hip bone strength during that time.37

Even lower doses of 180 micrograms/day of vitamin K2 (especially in the form of longer-lasting MK-7, which is derived from natto or fermented soybeans), when given for three years, increased the amount of activated osteocalcin and produced significant improvements in bone mineral content and density in the lower spine and femoral neck, while also increasing bone strength and preventing loss of height in spinal vertebrae.38

Vitamin K2 has recently been recognized by the European Food Safety Authority as having an important role in maintaining normal bone health.38 When added to alendronate, a common anti-osteoporosis drug, vitamin K2 significantly increased bone mineral density in the femoral neck compared with alendronate alone.39

Vitamin K And Diabetes

Type II diabetics have an increased risk of bone fracture. This is likely due in part to the incomplete activation of the Gla-protein osteocalcin (caused by lack of vitamin K), and the decrease of calcium being deposited in bone that occurs as a result.40 Conversely, people with the highest vitamin K1 intakes have reductions in inflammatory markers related to diabetes.28

Vitamin K has also been found to have a direct impact on the diabetic state itself. In a group of healthy volunteers between 26 and 81 years old, higher dietary vitamin K1 intake was associated with greater insulin sensitivity and lower post-meal glucose levels.41 And in a study of older adults at high risk for cardiovascular disease, the risk of developing type II diabetes was reduced by 17% per 100 micrograms of K1 intake per day.6

Another study demonstrated that both vitamins K1 and K2 reduced the risk of developing diabetes. However, the stronger and more significant association occurred with K2, which reduced the risk of type II diabetes by 7% for each 10-microgram increase in intake.5

In addition to reducing the risk of diabetes, vitamin K has been shown to reduce the effects of diabetes as well.

Supplementation studies in animals show that diabetic rats, like diabetic humans, develop bone mineral loss. However, when diabetic rats were supplemented with vitamin K2, not only was osteopenia prevented, hyperglycemia was prevented as well.42

Human supplementation studies demonstrate that both K1 and K2 are effective in combating the effects of diabetes. In older, non diabetic men, three years of supplementation with 500 micrograms/day of vitamin K1 produced a significant reduction in insulin resistance compared with controls.43 And in a study of healthy young men, just four weeks of supplementation with 30 mg of K2 three times daily improved insulin sensitivity.44 This may have occurred as a result of an increase in the vitamin K-dependent Gla-protein osteocalcin, which has been shown in animal studies to increase insulin secretion and sensitivity.45

Vit K

Vitamin K And Cancer

Studies of vitamin K intake reveal potent preventive properties against several types of cancer, including prostate, colon, and liver cancers.46

When prostate cancer cells in culture are treated with vitamin K2, both those sensitive to male hormones (androgens) and those resistant to male hormones are unable to reproduce, and eventually die.47 Vitamin K2 has been associated with a 63% lower risk of advanced prostate cancer in men with the highest intake of the nutrient.7 Similarly, a higher ratio of vitamin K-activated osteocalcin versus inactive osteocalcin correlates closely with reduced prostate cancer risk, demonstrating the molecular connection.48

In human colon cancer cells, vitamin K2 has been shown to induce cancer cell death by several different mechanisms and to suppress the growth of colon tumors implanted into mice.49,50

Supplementation studies also reveal vitamin K’s powerful effect on the most common kind of liver cancer, called hepatocellular carcinoma. This cancer is almost always associated with alcoholism or hepatitis B or C infection.51 Although surgical or radiation treatment can destroy the primary tumor, recurrence is common and typically determines the long-term prognosis.52,53 Several human studies show that vitamin K2 supplementation can dramatically reduce the recurrence rate in hepatocellular carcinoma and may impact the survival rate as well.52,53

As with most nutrients, vitamin K is not the single answer to cancer prevention, but it shows tremendous promise, which highlights the importance of maintaining adequate levels through boosting your intake. A large European study showed that cancer death was 28% less likely overall in those with the highest versus lowest intakes of vitamin K2.54

Impact Of Vitamin K2 Supplement On Liver Cancer Patients53
Recurrence Rate, % Survival Rate, %
12 mo 24 mo 36 mo 12 mo 24 mo 36 mo
Vitamin K2 45 mg/day 12.5 39.0 64.3 100 96.6 87.0
Controls 55.2 83.2 91.6 96.4 80.9 64.0

 

Read full article at: Life Extension Magazine