Origins

The series “Origins” opens the new season with several articles from our guest author Harry Bourne.

India, Africa, the Sea & Antiquity: “Amerindia” and Scandinavia

Author: Harry Bourne

What is about to be described in this section is to demonstrate what is written about various groups hypothesised to have reached parts of Africa in antiquity and will mainly follow Oliver Cromwell’s much-quoted comment on the occasion of his portrait being painted. This was that the portrait had to include his warts plus all his other imperfections or never be done.
This wartsn’all approach means the noting of the good and bad about the cited groups. This will largely concentrate on the period between circa (= ca.) 500 BCE and ca. 500 CE. By BCE is meant Before Common Era (= BC) and CE indicates Common Era (= AD). Indian seafarers are mainly excluded from this section and will be discussed in Part 2 and onwards. Mention of such as “online in 2015” indicates access in that year.

 

Part 1.3

“Amerindia”

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This section figures the people(s) variously known as the First Nations, Native Americans, Amerindians, Amerinds, etc. The latter is plainly an abbreviated form of the term immediately preceding it. The inclusion of the Amerinds may be somewhat unexpected but hopefully the reason for this will become obvious.

There has been a considerable amount of research into the maritime history of Amerinds on the Pacific or west-facing littoral of the Americas. Attesting the very long history of seafaring of Amerinds these shores of West-coast Americas is the near-800 pages by Thor Heyerdahl (20). Useful supporting material is in “The Dissemination of American Economic Plants on Precolumbian Sea Routes” by Bruno Wolters (21). Also useful are Richard Callaghan (22), Dorothy Hosler (23), etc.

The last three named are among those showing extensive commercial traffic along these Pacific-facing parts of West-coast Americas. Heyerdahl, Wolters, etc, demonstrate this was largely raft-based that again could be non-stop for ca. 3500 miles between Ecuador and west Mexico. A major difference between that of the Indo-Malay ANs on the Indian Ocean and that of West-coast Americas is that the Amerind seacraft had clearly defined steering and propulsion modes. The propulsion came by use of sails and the steering methods were based on devices called guares/guaras, swords/daggers, leeboards, etc.
Evidence of the passages between Ecuador to west Mexico include shaft-graves, clothing, language, ceramics (& associated technology), metallurgy (& associated metallurgy), terraced agriculture, etc. Useful agricultural produce was also exchanged according to Wolters (ib.), as were psychoactive plants plus fungi according to such as Terry McGuire (24). Hosler (ib.) points to the interesting case of the bird called the white-faced jay. She says Ecuadorian habitat differs from that of Ecuador where it has a very restricted distribution in Mexico and says there are no known intermediate stages between Ecuador and west Mexico. She thought that it was attractive to the traders because of its color and its ability at mimicry.

The Ecuadorian merchants not only brought these birds to west Mexico but came looking for supplies of the Spondylus shell plus the psychoactive drugs also known in the homeland and apparently having the effects. McGuire (ib.) also refers to an overland trade also reaching east Mexican parts of North America. Looming large among the ancient cultures here are the Olmecs.

The Olmec Culture may have had their heartland in the Veracruz province (Mexico). An alternative name for them according to Philip Arnold (25) was Uixtotin (= Peoples of the Saltwater/Sea). To this is to be added Giancarlo Sette (26). Sette (ib.) shows Olmec artifacts evidently traded for gold and jade from Panama/Costa Rica. They include an Olmec-made object found in Costa Rica having decoration matched at the Early Olmec site of La Venta (Mex.) so presumably indicates the beginnings of this trade. What Hosler (ib.) says about the white-faced jay probably showing non-stop traders for ca. 3500 miles applies equally to Veracruz-to- Panama voyages.

By far the most complete research into the seafaring of East-coast Amerinds is by Jack Forbes (27 & 28) and is probably the nearest there is to Heyerdahl’s (ib.) massive book touched on already. He regards it as probable that East-coast Amerinds from those of Mesoamerica to those of North America as capable reaching parts of Europe. Forbes (ib.) cites John Heaviside (29) as an early believer of Amerinds reaching that part of Africa known as Egypt.

In this opinion, Heaviside runs opposite to the rather later one of Stephen Compton (30) but both agree on the Egypto/Mexican connections (as do many others). Forbes (ib.) refers to many instances of Amerinds possibly known in ancient Europe Also to the finding of bodies with faces that were neither African nor European in vessels washed up in the Azores. This was evidently reported by the brother-in-law of Columbus. Gordon Kennedy (31) makes a further possible linkage of Amerinds with the island-groups collectively known as the Macaronesian Islands that are otherwise the Azores, Madeira, the Canaries plus the Cape Verde Islands.

Kennedy is manly describing the Canary Islands. Heaviside refers to half-black and half-white populations in west African oral-lore. He says this is mirrored by a passage in the Popol Vuh (= Counsel-book [of the Quiche Maya]), itself oft-said to be the nearest thing to an Amerind sacred book. More on this comes with the frequent comparisons of west African faces and some those carved on the Olmec Great Heads, the head of a young Yoruba (Nigeria) woman and another in the famous Wuthenau collection, of the names of Yemoja/Yemoya ( a Yoruban sea-goddess) and Yemoye (an Amerind spelling of Jamaica). Other hints added when we read of Roger Blench (32) saying it seems the African palm-oil tree turned into that of the Americas and the American silk-cotton tree became the African silk-cotton tree.

A similar pattern of plant exchanges was briefly noted as having been shown by Wolters (ib.) but it should be said that this was mainly a trade in coastal waters. Views earlier than those of Heyerdahl (1952) are cited by Michael Bradley (33) that totally dismisses Amerinds sailing on rafts. Nor do all authorities agree that rafts are a typical seacraft of West –coast Amerinds.

Even after the exploits of Heyerdahl detailed in his massive 800 pages (& elsewhere) there is an opinion this only shows Norwegians are good sailors not South American Amerinds were/are. The DNA tests demonstrate Heyerdahl’s basic thrust of an Amerind origin for the Polynesians was wrong but should not be taken as indicating the Amerinds of southern West-coast Americas did not venture out on to the Pacific Ocean.

Two books by Jack Forbes have been referred to. In them, he makes obvious he has little time for claimed Africans as an ancestral strand of the Olmecs of Mexico or as traders in the Caribbean coeval with Columbus. It should be borne in mind that although Forbes points to an offshoot of the North Equatorial Current west-flowing to the Gulf of Guinea, the voyages there described in Richard Callaghan’s computerised simulations denote that they were of a drift not purposeful nature.

Douglas Peck (34) says Amerinds could not get from Yucatan (east Mex.) to Cuba. If wrecks truly imply bad seacraft, the probable Amerind bodies found in the Azores were in a wrecked vessel. Many would disagree with Kennedy (ib.) seeking Amerind links with the Canaries; the more so given there was even very little contact with nearby islands. With the Cape Verde Islands as the last of the Macaronesian groups in mind, any attempt at linking them with Amerinds in west Africa would surely fail on such as Elysee Reclus (34) noting the current between these islands and Senegal halted contacts. This would almost mirror what Peck says about Yucatan to Cuba.

 

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Thor Heyerdahl’s Expedition Kon-tiki

 

 

Scandinavia

Scandinavia or Nordic Europe is the homeland of the variously labelled as Vikings or Norse and it might again be wondered why they are included here. One similarity are scenes on rocks depicting economic activities in parts of Africa and Scandinavia. Those in the latter region include fishing and are detailed in Graham Clark’s (35) “The Development of fishing in prehistoric Europe”. Clark’s many works attest large bones showing adult cod at sites of the Mesolithic (= Middle Stone Age) plus the gathering of stone from the Lofoten Islands for axe-making. The rock-art continues through the Neolithic (= New Stone Age) into the succeeding Bronze and Iron Ages. By the Pre-Roman Iron Age, the Hjortspring/Nydam/Kvalsum/ Gokstad sequence of Nordic ship-building has already begun. It should be borne in mind this is a simplified version of development but serves as rough and ready way to demonstrate stages leading up to the beginning of the Viking period.
The ship excavated at Gokstad (Norway) in the 19th c. is held to be a fine example of Nordic/Viking shipbuilding. As the Phoenicians had a round-shaped merchantmen called the golah so the Vikings had one called the knarr. Likewise, the Phoenicians had a called a kirkarah and the Vikings had the drakarr (= dragon-ship/longship). As is normal, the drakarr as a warship gets most attention.

Drakarr

Viking long ship “drakarr”

 

Follow up: Part 1.3: . Stay tuned. 

The first chapters of this can be found here:

Part 1.1 China

Part 1.2 Indonesia

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The Red-Haired Race And The Atlantean Connection: III The Americas

Peru_Nazca_AstronautThe myths of Native Americans sustain that when their ancestors arrived in the Americas, they met an already existing population in the new lands, which they describe as mythical beings.
Was there an unknown culture on the American continent the existence of which goes back to before the last Ice Age? Who were they?
To find some elements that might support this idea, we need to have a look at modern DNA testing.
DNA – the European connection

According to the prevailing New World migration model, migrations of humans from Eurasia to the Americas took place via Beringia, a land bridge that connected the two continents across what is now the Bering Strait. The most recent migration could have taken place around 12,000 years ago, with the earliest period remaining a matter of some unresolved contention. These early Paleo-Indians soon spread throughout the continent, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes.
However, modern DNA analysis sheds some new light on this theory, leaving scholars with more questions than answers.
In molecular evolution, a haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor. A haplogroup from mitochondrial DNA can be understood as a marker that can be used to define genetic populations and their migrations. In human genetics, the haplogroups most commonly studied are Y-chromosome (Y-DNA) haplogroups and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, both of which can be used to backtrack the migrations and geographical origins of our ancestors.
There are five different haplogroups found within the native tribes of the Americas. In this article and for the purpose, we will focus on only one of them: the haplogroup X.
Haplogroup X is believed to be one of the original haplogroups of the continent. It is present in all indigenous people, with a bigger concentration in some tribes and areas than in others.
Unlike the four main Native American mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C, D), and the Y-chromosome sub-haplogroup Q1a3a, X is not at all strongly associated with East Asia. It is only found in small quantities in Western Asian areas, like in the Altay people in Southwestern Siberia. However, it is found in approximately 7% of native Europeans, and 3% of all Native Americans from North America.
The question that arises from these discoveries is of course:
If the Native Americans migrated once over the Bering Bridge to the Americas and originated in Asia, how is it possible that haplogroup X exists in the Americas and in Europe, but not in (Eastern) Asian populations?

lost-civilizations-3-figure.jpgEuropean genes: the scientific debate about the migration into the American continent

Through the analysis of various mutations within haplogroup X, scientists are able to use that “genetic clock” to estimate the time of arrival of those early Europeans. Depending on how large a group they assume headed west, they come up with two time ranges – either between 36,000 and 23,000 years ago or between 17,000 and 12,000 years ago. It is for sure that the DNA did not arrive in America with the European explorers of the last 500 years or so. European X and American X are different enough to establish with certainty they must have diverged thousands of years ago. That is long before the age of exploration introduced European genes to the New World. Interestingly, DNA testing on pre-Columbian Native American skeletal remains showed that haplogroup X was present in those ancient peoples in the same proportion as it is in modern Native American tribes.
The results offer a completely new look on how the American continent was populated and confirm that the cultural similarities between ancient peoples on different continents might be much more than just a coincidence. Scientists try to explain these facts with new theories about the population of the New World. They believe that the Solutreans of Spain might have crossed the Atlantic using the southern Equatorial current and entered the Caribbean and Central America between 18,000 and 12,000 years ago. They would then become known as the Clovis hunters of America. Clovis, with its distinctive biface, blade and osseous technologies, is the oldest widespread archaeological complex defined in North America, dating from 11,100 to 10,700 years before present (13,000 to 12,600 calendar years bp). However, the DNA analysis of a child’s bones from 12,600 years ago, discovered in the U.S. state Montana, made scientists conclude that those early inhabitants of the American continent migrated to the Americas from Siberia and are therefore of Asian origin.
The recent genetic findings mentioned above suggest also that the people now known as Gaelic speaking Celts (including Irish, Welsh, Scots, Basques and Berbers) are a remnant of a group of people who also left Spain between 18,000 and 12,000 years ago and spent 6,000 years isolated from Europe before returning, bringing the Megalithic culture to coastal Europe.
Considering the cultural findings of the populations in Europe from 18,000 years ago, the question arises whether it is realistic to suppose that those people were able to travel across the ocean to reach the American East cost. Which was the motivation for them to migrate and how did they know that there was another continent on the other side? And if they didn’t know – why would they undertake such a possibly fatal adventure?
These questions remain, until now, unanswered.

Legends

The Paiutes, a Native-American tribe indigenous to parts of Nevada, Utah and Arizona, told early white settlers about their ancestors’ battles with a ferocious race of white, red-haired giants. According to the Paiutes, the giants were already living in the area.
Interestingly, this corresponds to an Egyptian popular, allegorical legend that seems to report the war-like conflicts between the gods and an evil red-haired race. The legend influenced Egyptian Afterlife traditions and led to the human sacrifice of red-haired people. Later on, as already stated in previous articles, Egypt suddenly had a red-haired king. And while this is a fact that researchers accept saying “the customs had changed in the new kingdom”, one wonders what may have happened to make Egyptian people worship a pharaoh who seemingly was the descendant of their lethal enemy.
Other tribes on the American continent describe the people that their ancestors found at their arrival on the continent as mythical beings with super natural powers. This corresponds to important legends of Central and South American peoples.
The Mayas and POMA0106vAztecs recorded their encounters with a race of giants that lived in the north, and everywhere in the populations of the Andes Mountains we find the same legend of a tall, bearded man with fair skin who appeared coming over the ocean. He arrived in times of great trouble when the sun had disappeared and flood had devastated Earth. They called him Viracocha.
The stranger was a man of incredible knowledge. He was a great architect, scientist, engineer and mason. He was generous and loving and taught people how to make a better living for themselves. He was tall, physically strong and had mythical powers that enabled him to form landscapes and create water springs. He told the people to treat each other with love and respect and do good for others.
One day a group of people in a village stood up against him and threatened him physically. As he was in danger, the man suddenly fell on his knees and lifted up his hands towards the sky, and instantly a fire appeared from the heavens then engulfed him and the people who had aggressed him. They were so frightened that they dropped all weapons, seeking forgiveness.
At his willpower, the fire disappeared. But the bearded man went down to the ocean and stepped into the waves. He promised to come back, but he was never seen again.
The people who witnessed his farewell called him “Viracocha”, which means “Foam of the Ocean”.
Nobody knows who the Viracocha was. Ancient Spanish documents report that a marble statue of the Viracocha existed once in Coriancha in Peru. The statue was described as to look like Saint Bartholomeus. Other sources said that it looked like Saint Thomas.
One thing is for sure: whoever he was, the Viracocha was certainly not a Native American, but rather someone of Caucasian appearance.
A similar story is told about the Mesoamerican deity Quetzalcoatl.
The name originates from Nahuatl language and means “feather serpent”. Many depictions show him exactly as that.
The legends say that Quetzacoatl arrived coming from the ocean to the land that today is Mexico. He was described as a tall man with light skin and a beard and as a powerful if also ethereal being.
Quetzacoatl brought the peoples of the area great knowledge. He was a mathematician, and it is believed that he was the one who gave the Mayas their complex calendar, based on his formulas.
The Spanish who have documented the conquest of America describe the being they had heard of as a man with light skin with a long beard, tall and with a high forehead, big hazel eyes and physically strong. He refused blood sacrifices and predicated peace. 7163838
Throughout the continent, Quetzacoatl was called with different names. In Chichen Itzá he was called Kukulcan, and the Quiché-Maya called him Gucumatz. Both names again mean “feathered serpent”. Other names for him were Itzamana and Votan. All these Gods brought culture and knowledge to the peoples that came in contact with them. All of them came across the ocean, and all of them went back into the waters with the promise to come back.
It is very unlikely that the parallels in these legends are mere coincidence. Did the Native Americans imagine people of Caucasian appearance long before the first Europeans arrived on the continent? Or is it possible that they had actually seen such people before the arrival of the official discoverers?
It is said today by scholars that the Spaniards who documented the conquest of Mesoamerica, might have changed the stories told to them in a way that Mesoamerican deities became more and more similar to Europeans. But it is a widely known story that when the Spanish Conquistadores under Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro reached the shores of what is today Mexico, the Aztec King Montezuma and his people went to greet the visitors and honored them as returning Gods. The Aztecs were warriors and certainly conscious of the possibility that strangers who appeared at their coasts might not have come with peaceful intentions. If the description of a light skinned and bearded Quetzalcoatl were the mere fantasy of the Spaniards, why did the Aztecs consider them returning Gods?

Red-haired mummies of the Americas: survivors of a sunken continent?

In North America, red-haired mummies have been found in Michigan, Illinois, New York State, Virgina, Arizona and Nevada.
In South America, red-haired mummies and giant humanoid bones have been unearthed in Peru, Brazil, Chile, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Columbia.
71690219-mummies-the The finds had a major impact on common theories about early populations and their migrations and changed the widely accepted theory of the population of the Americas entirely, enhanced by modern genetic research. The debate stretches from theories about different simultaneous migrations into the Americas to claims about racist intentions.
Fact is, however, that up to the current day, nobody has a clear answer to the allover question: how is it possible that there are genetic and cultural similarities in ancient populations in many places on the globe, very distant from each other, if we assume that the cultures in those places had no direct contact? With the latest DNA results, scientists saw themselves forced to drop this latter claim. Yet, any kind of contact doesn’t explain why red-haired mummies are found all over the globe, and why the cultural impact on all other peoples was so striking. And it has yet to be found out which human race’s members were taller than modern man and characterized by red hair.
Not later than now, the question arises: was there eventually an earlier civilization, possibly highly advanced, that migrated into other continents? And if so, what were their motivations? Were they just a belligerent, aggressive people who wanted to expand and subdue all other populations? But then again, who were they? Common history about human ancestry has ignored those people’s existence entirely. They weren’t actually known until the evidence of their existence popped up with the discoveries of the mummies. So, where was their home place? Where did they originate from? Were they really descendants of European races? Or are the European races rather descendants from a people that at some point landed on European shores? Are they the so called “Civilization X”, the mysterious culture previous to everything we know about the history of mankind?

Atlantis

Many hypothesis of the location of the mythical continent Atlantis have been made since Plato mentioned it in his works Timaeus and Critias. Many researchers consider it a great possibility that it was somewhere in the Atlantic Ocean. When it sank into the floods, some people could have managed to escape and reached the shores of distant continents. They might have brought their knowledge and culture to other tribes and peoples; they might have come in confAthanasius_Kircher's_Atlantislict with them or tried to subdue them. However, this hypothesis would solve the DNA riddle, and explain apparently incomprehensible similarities in the different cultures. It would explain why the mysterious tall redheads appear in the tales of cultures that live far away from each other and why their mummified remains are being found in the most unthinkable places all over the globe.
Unfortunately, when we search for official information about the mythical continent, we find out that its real existence keeps not being considered a possibility by scholars.
In Wikipedia, the article about Atlantis opens with the words: “Atlantis (…) is the name of a fictional island mentioned within an allegory on the hubris of nations in Plato’s works Timaeus and Critias, where it represents the antagonist naval power that besieges “Ancient Athens”, the pseudo-historic embodiment of Plato’s ideal.”
Nevertheless, the fascination by the story and the search for hints for its real existence will likely never cease. Atlantis would have existed in a very distant time. Swallowed by the ocean, it left no considerable trace of its existence. Therefore, for modern science it remains a fairy tale.
Nevertheless, putting together lose ends researching genetic and anthropological mysteries, the sunken continent offers a much better explanation than many scientific theories of today.

 

 

Sources:
http://users.on.net/~mkfenn/page9.htm
http://badarchaeology.wordpress.com/2014/02/15/the-paracas-skulls-aliens-an-unknown-hominid-species-or-cranial-deformation
http://frontiers-of-anthropology.blogspot.de/2012/04/redhaired-mummies-and-giants-of-united.html
http://www.pbs.org/saf/1406/features/dna2.htm
http://ironlight.wordpress.com/2010/07/10/nevadas-mysterious-cave-of-the-red-haired-giants/
http://blog.world-mysteries.com/ancient-writings/the-red-haired-race/
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v506/n7487/full/nature13025.html
http://www.heritagedaily.com/2014/02/origins-of-americas-first-humans/102120
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/mummies_01.shtml

Fernando S. Gallegos, “The Ancients”

Image credit: http://www.louiethomas.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/atlantis3.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mythical Creatures And Celestial Beings Depicted In North America’s Oldest Rock Art

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MessageToEagle.com – Archaeologists believe these are the oldest known rock carvings in North America. These intriguing depictions of otherworldly beings were strategically placed to reveal a cosmological puzzle.

The paintings and carvings have been scattered around the caves and bluff faces of the Cumberland Plateau, a division of the Appalachian Mountains extending from southern West Virginia to northern Alabama.

The rock art – left behind by the ancestors of the Native American nations of the Southeast – was just waiting to be discovered.

Now a group of scientists, led by anthropology professor Jan Simek, at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville have proposed that rock art changed the natural landscape to reflect a three-dimensional universe central to the religion of the prehistoric Mississippian period.

Read the full article about the discovery at  MessageToEagle.com

Video: Mysteries Of Humanity: Who lived in the Americas?

Video

Mysteries Of Humanity (IV)

Who lived in the Americas? (part two)

Was there an already existing population living in the Americas when the ancestors of modern day’s Native Americans migrated over the Bering Bridge?
Legends talk about tall, white,bearded men who helped the peoples of the Americas in times of great trouble. Those helpful people had different names – Viracocha, Quetzalcoatl, Kukulcan, Voltan – but the stories are almost identical.
Were they living on the American continent? Where had they come from?
The tales of a white skinned population and the legends of Caucasian looking,spiritually and technologically advanced beings in the Americas before Columbus, raise questions of sunken continents and unknown civilizations in the still mysterious history of humanity.