The Mystery Of The Sunken Ruins Of Nan Madol

(N.Morgan) On our exploration of the strange and beautiful, I found an under water ruin called Nan Mandol,Micronesian. The mystery that surrounds this ruin was intriguing enough for me to want to know more. Some believe that aliens built this wonderous city. Again, I marvel at the ingenuity of the ancestors and their never ending en devour to improve their way of life. One of the greatest archeological mysteries in the world, the lost city of Nan Madol. Build on an ancient corals reef and covering more than 11 square miles, this ancient city is made up hundreds of artificial islets, intersected by numerous man made canals.

Even more curious, many of the city’s larger islands are connected by submerged tunnels. The mysterious Nan Madol is built entirely out of gigantic magnetized basalt crystals, some weighing as much as fifty tons. In fact, the entire city contains an estimated 250 million tons of the prismatic basalt rock. Native mythology suggests that the stones were magically flown through the air and placed in the city.

Image

Image

© Wikimedia/Hobe/Holger Behr
Rough map of Nan Madol in the Federated States of Micronesia.

According to the Weather Channel:

Off the shores of a tiny island in the middle of the vast Pacific Ocean are the ruins of an ancient civilization. The remains of Nan Madol are the only standing monument of a civilization built entirely over open water, on a coral reef.

The eerie abandoned stone structures are said to have inspired science-fiction writer H. P. Lovecraft to create a similar sunken city that was home to the monster Cthulhu, says Atlas Obscura.

In reality, Nan Madol was once home to the Saudeleur, who ruled the island of Pohnpei for more than a millennium, reported Smithsonian Magazine. The 92 artificial islands of Nan Madol are thought to have been constructed over the course of several centuries, and then eventually abandoned after 1,000 years of habitation.

Rufino Mauricio, Pohnpei’s only archaeologist, has dedicated his life to studying and preserving the ruins, which are built of 750,000 tons of black basaltic rock.

“We don’t know how they brought the columns here and we don’t know how they lifted them up to build the walls. Most Pohnpeians are content to believe they used magic to fly them,” Mauricio told Smithsonian.

He added that given the size of Pohnpei’s population at the time – fewer than 30,000 people – the construction of Nan Madol is an even larger and more remarkable effort than the Great Pyramids were for the ancient Egyptians.

Image(Image)

(Image)

 

Source: Before its News

Advertisements

Why Do Archeologists Lie? New England’s Ancient Stone Chambers Revealed

Why do establishment-funded archeologists and academics still pretend and cover-up evidence of ancient and highly advanced civilisations, particularly those located in North America?


IMAGE: Aerial view of one of many mysterious stone structures in New England, Northeast United States.

There are hundreds of elaborate, man-made stone structures throughout New England and upstate New York in the northeast of the US, with many structures found in remote areas – far from any recognised ‘human settlements’.

So much is being hidden, but why? Watch this excellent presentation on what has been there right below our noses in the US…

A stonemason asks questions about the ancient stone chambers in New England


Brasscheck TV

There are elaborately constructed stone structures throughout New England and the Northeast.

They’re usually found in relatively inaccessible places, far away from water and settlements, and often deep in the woods and/or in mountainous areas. And they’re all line up perfectly with astronomical phenomena.

So what do traditional archeologists and historians say about them? “They’re root cellars.”

First of all, NONE of these structures would function well as root cellars.

Second, building a root cellar is a simple job, one not requiring multi-ton stone arch roofs.

Why do mainstream scientists lie about this? By the way, this speaker – who does occasionally go pretty far out – and had his very popular TEDX talk banned by TED headquarters.

On another note, apparently the looting of mounds and other mysterious structure appears to have been a national pastime years ago. The story of just one of these structures written about here: “Looting Spiro Mounds: An American King Tut’s Tomb “…

Source: 21stcenturywire.com

Image source

Mysterious Ancient Falicon Pyramid And Its Complex Obscure History

Message To Eagle, 12 March, 2014

A strange ancient monument known as the Falicon pyramid is located at a rural site near the town of Falicon, near Nice on the French Riviera. It’s one of a few pyramids in Europe.
Mysterious ancient equilateral structure – perched on a rocky ridge in an area of rugged gorges, forests and hills – has the same name as a very ancient village, located only two kilometers from the pyramid.
Falicon Pyramid has a complex and rather mysterious history.

 

The pyramid – located above a karstic cave known as the “Cave of the Bats” (Grotto of Ratapignata ) on the eastern flank of the ridge – is constructed of small irregularly-shaped stones and is in rather ruined condition.

While most of its upper section is missing, the lower section is well-preserved.

For what purpose was the Falicon pyramid built?

What exactly inspired the unknown stone masons to build this structure in rather inaccessible mountain range of the so -called Maritime Alps, in the south-western part of the Alps, at an altitude of 430 meters?

Why was it raised in such inaccessible place? Where are the underground tunnels beneath the village of Falicon leading?

It is a place, where “time stands still” giving the impression to be totally isolated from “civilization” pulsating just about 10 km from the center of Nice.
Beneath very old houses, there is a network of arched prehistoric tunnels.

Read the full article about this fascinating construction on Message To Eagle

Mythical Creatures And Celestial Beings Depicted In North America’s Oldest Rock Art

20140309-113531.jpg

MessageToEagle.com – Archaeologists believe these are the oldest known rock carvings in North America. These intriguing depictions of otherworldly beings were strategically placed to reveal a cosmological puzzle.

The paintings and carvings have been scattered around the caves and bluff faces of the Cumberland Plateau, a division of the Appalachian Mountains extending from southern West Virginia to northern Alabama.

The rock art – left behind by the ancestors of the Native American nations of the Southeast – was just waiting to be discovered.

Now a group of scientists, led by anthropology professor Jan Simek, at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville have proposed that rock art changed the natural landscape to reflect a three-dimensional universe central to the religion of the prehistoric Mississippian period.

Read the full article about the discovery at  MessageToEagle.com

Video: Mysteries Of Humanity: Who lived in the Americas?

The Oak Island Mystery

Image
A new reality based television show named ‘The Curse of Oak Island’ recently started to air a few weeks ago on The History Channel. I must admit, it is a subject that I have had great interest in. The TV show is described as:

In 1795, three teenage boys discovered a strange, man-made hole on Oak Island, a small, wooded island just off the coast of Nova Scotia, Canada. As the boys began to dig, they found a number of intriguing artifacts. It was the end of the piracy era and rumors of buried treasure were rampant. The boys’ discovery launched a treasure hunt that has spanned more than 200 years, cost millions of dollars and involved dozens of speculators, engineers and even famous personalities such as John Wayne, Errol Flynn and Franklin D. Roosevelt.

The search had gone dormant, but now, Rick and Marty Lagina, two brothers from Michigan, have bought most of the island and have renewed the efforts to discover the legendary treasure. Since childhood, Oak Island has been a magical place of intrigue for these men. With Marty’s financial backing, Rick is now leading the adventure of his life. But will their luck be any different from the many explorers who sought treasure before them and failed?

The Laginas insist that their goal is the fun of a treasure-hunting adventure, and if it becomes something that could splinter their brotherly bond, they’ll walk away. But obsession has been known to grip treasure seekers on Oak Island.

Many men have taken on the hunt with the best of intentions, only to be left with decimated fortunes, broken spirits and lost lives. An ominous legend says that seven people must die in pursuit of the treasure before Oak Island will reveal her secrets. So far, the body count stands at six.

Image

Several years ago, I posted the following information:

Off and on for nearly 200 years men have been boring and tunneling for treasure on Oak Island, a small island off the coast of Nova Scotia. Whoever dug the aptly-named “Money Pit” was a brilliant engineer, who harnessed the sea in the form of booby traps to keep trespassers at bay.

The pit consists of a deep shaft, furnished with an ingenious arrangement of side tunnels that allow the sea to flood in whenever diggers venture into it’s depths. The only finds so far have been: three links of a chain that may have been gold or copper (accounts vary); a tiny scrap of parchment reading the two letters, V and I, written with a quill pen: and a cipher stone with odd samples that was found at 90 feet down the shaft (which has since mysteriously disappeared).

The story of Oak Island began in 1795, when 16-year-old Daniel McGinnis paddled over from the little Nova Scotian town of Chester to hunt game. In a clearing at one end of the island, an old ship’s block and tackle hung from a tree over the center of a 12 foot wide depression.

ImageThe island was rumored to have been haunted by pirates who had buried their treasure before they died. Nonetheless, Daniel and two other boys started digging. They found a 13-foot-wide circular shaft dug through clay, with thick oak platforms at 10, 20 and 30 feet. As the work progressed, it became difficult getting help from superstitious townsfolk, so the dig was abandoned in 1804. In the same year, a wealthy Nova Scotian named Simeon Lynds formed the first treasure company. He found the first and greatest obstacle to all further explorations of the pit – water.

The workers had broken through eight oak platforms, three of which were sealed with ship’s putty and coconut fibers when the cipher stone was found at 90 feet. When the hole had been dug 8 feet deeper, a crowbar hit something solid. Lynds was sure he had found the elusive treasure chest. The next day, to his dismay, the pit had filled with 60 feet of water overnight. Weeks of bailing with buckets and the use of crude pumps failed to lower the water’s level inside the pit.

Lynds’ miners sank a second shaft close and parallel to the original pit. At 100 feet they began burrowing toward the treasure when suddenly, the miners were scrambling for their lives. Water had burst into the shaft and filled it to the same level as the original shaft. The previously wealthy Lynds was now destitute having run through his fortune in search of the treasure.

In 1849, John Smith and Anthony Vaughn, who were in their seventies and had helped in the original dig in 1795, returned to Oak Island and tried again with the help of a syndicate from Truro, Nova Scotia.

The Truro shafts seemed to confirm the existence of two or more chests that might contain treasure in some form. Unfortunately, their work undermined the pit itself and caused the bottom to collapse into what was thought to be a vast cavern. The collapse may have resulted in the chest being carried down, possibly breaking apart and dispersing the contents.

ImageThe ‘Money Pit’ in 1947

The Truro syndicate later discovered why the pits had flooded to a level that rose and fell with the tides. A man-made tunnel, 111 feet down connected the sea to the cavern and pit. In 1893 the sea tunnel was dynamited and blocked…still the pit flooded uncontrollably.

Further excavations were made in 1909, 1931, 1935, 1936, 1942, 1959, 1965, 1969, and 1971, none of which were successful. In 1942 a second man-made tunnel to the sea was discovered and it was feared that there might be several more. During the 1990s, further exploration was stalled because of legal battles over the land rights. As of 2005, a portion of the island was for sale. In April of 2006 a Michigan group, said it will resume operations on Oak Island in the hope of discovering buried treasure and the mystery of Oak Island.

Recently, the two parties who fought for land rights in the 1990′s have agree to merged and search the Money Pit together.

ImageThe Cipher Stone?

THEORIES ON THE SUPPOSED TREASURE

There has been wide-ranging speculation amongst enthusiasts as to who originally dug the pit and what it might contain. One theory is that the island contains pirate treasure, a hoard buried by Captain Kidd or possibly Edward Teach (Blackbeard). Teach claimed he buried his treasure “where none but Satan and myself can find it.” Some also hold to the theory that Kidd conspired with Henry Every and Oak Island was used as a pseudo community bank between the two.

Others agree the pit was dug to hold treasure but believe this was done by Spanish sailors from a wrecked galleon or British troops during the American Revolution. Another argument is that given the size and complexity of the pit, it was likely dug by French army engineers hoping to hide the contents of the treasury of the Fortress of Louisbourg after it fell to the British during the Seven Years’ War.

Lacking archival evidence some speculate the the priceless jewels of Marie Antoinette (which are historically missing) are buried on Oak Island. During the French Revolution, when the Palace of Versailles was stormed by revolutionaries in 1789, Marie Antoinette instructed her lady-in-waiting to take her prized possessions and flee. Supposedly, the royal items made it to London along with important artwork or documents, secreted away either on her person or as her luggage, It is even believed she was assisted by the remaining loyal officers of the French navy during the uprising. The story then goes that this woman fled further afield from London to Nova Scotia through royal connections she would have had during her service to the queen at Versailles and managed to contract the French navy to help construct the famed ‘pit’ on the island. Whether such a complex engineering effort could have been completed is questionable and no official date of its construction exists. However, other theories do suggest the structure is French and naval in style.

There are other theories that state the Oak Island pit was dug to hold treasure much more exotic than gold or silver.

B4INREMOTE-aHR0cDovLzQuYnAuYmxvZ3Nwb3QuY29tL19pcTJ2UVkxSmVhdy9UU3pxZHpuemRPSS9BQUFBQUFBQVhNWS9hZDRVM1dNbTRGNC9zMjAwL21vbmV5cGl0Ni5qcGc=

The Knights Templar have been linked to the mystery of Oak Island by many, primarily because historical records suggest that they had both motive and means to deposit treasure in the Money Pit. Compelling of all is their connection with the Holy Land, prompting speculation of untold wealth and artifacts in the form of the Holy Grail or possibly, the Ark of the Covenant.

When Europe called for the Crusades, the Templar found themselves at the center of religious fervor. It was not long before sons of wealthy families were pledging their fortunes and property to the order just for the privilege of joining the band.

The Templar began to emerged as the worlds first bank whereby Kings would deposit their gold in Paris only to be able to withdraw it again in Jerusalem. The result of which was the immense growth of Templar, in both wealth and number.

When Jerusalem and the Holy Lands were eventually lost to Islam, the Templar experienced a swift backlash whereby the King Philip of France began to plot against the organization in hope of reaching their immense wealth.

On Friday the 13th of October 1307, the King found an ally in Pope Clement V and ordered that the Templar leaders be arrested. It is speculated that King Philip’s motive was that he owed the Templar a massive amount of money due to loans he acquired during many lean years in France.

ImageOnce the day of the arrests arrived, the Paris Templar arranged that its treasures be loaded on a wagon train headed toward the port city of La Rochelle. From there, it was deposited aboard the Templar ships, setting sail to an unknown destination. According to Andrew Sinclair, author of “The Sword and the Grail”, the Templar were said to flee with the treasure to Scotland.

Source: Before Its News

Video

Evidence Of Ancient Stone Constructions 12,000 Years Old In Peru?

Saihuite is about 4 hours drive south of Cusco Peru and is rarely visited by tourists. Its claim to fame is a large heavily carved stone, but beyond this, and in the nearby valley are clear examples of megalithic lost ancient technology that the resident Inca could not have made. They may be what remains of a mysterious culture that lived there 12,000 plus years ago.

Ancient Knowledge And The Mysterious Origins Of Man: Astrotheology

Astrotheology of the Ancients

by D.M. Murdock/Acharya S

Introduction

The further one regresses in time, the more obvious it becomes that the principal and Sunrise shows the beauty of naturesingular religious worship found around the globe has revolved around nature. This nature worship has included reverence not only for the earth, its creatures and their fecundity, but also for the sun, moon, planets and stars. For many thousands of years, man has looked to the skies and become awestruck by what he has observed. This awe has led to the reverence and worship both of the night and day skies, an adoration called “astrotheology.” While fertility worship has constituted an important and prevalent part of the human religion, little has astonished humankind more than the sky, with its enormous, blazing, white day orb in the azure expanse, and with its infinite, twinkling, black night dome. So fascinated by the sky, or heavens, has been man that he has created entire religions, with organized priesthoods, complex rituals and massive edifices, in order to tell its story.

The story begins, as far back as the current evidence reveals, with the night sky as the primary focus of pre-agricultural, nomadic peoples. The night sky held Night Sky imageparticular importance in the lives of desert nomads, because the fiery sun was a hindrance to them, while the cool night allowed them to travel. In traveling by night, these desert nomads became keenly aware of the night sky’s various landmarks, including the stars, planets and moon. The nomads noticed regularity and began to chart the skies, hoping to divine omens, portents and signs. Others who developed this astronomical science included ancient mariners who journeyed thousands of miles through the open seas, such as the Polynesians, whose long, Pacific voyages have been estimated to have begun at least 30,000 years ago. The astronomical science allowed the ancients to predict weather patterns, the turn of seasons and attendant climate changes, as well as comets, asteroids and meteors menacing the earth. This archaeoastronomy was an accurate prognosticator for daily, weekly, monthly and yearly events. Indeed, it was an augur for the changes of entire ages, some of which, as in the chronologies of the Maya, Babylonians and Hindus, extend back hundreds of thousands or millions of years.

Determining the archaeoastronomy requires the use of astronomy, archaeology, ethnography and other sciences to study legends, texts, artifacts and architectural remains. Such fascinating relics include rock paintings, megalithic structures, calendars and medicine wheels. Cultural remains and ruins globally demonstrate the ancients’ interest in and knowledge of “the complex regularity of the motions of the sun, moon, and stars and…unusual occurrences such as the appearance of a nova or comet in the sky.”… (26-27)

That ancient peoples, including those thought to be “primitive,” possessed this impressive knowledge, which required precise geometrical capacity as well as astronomical expertise, is a fact. That they went to extraordinary lengths to encapsulate and memorialize it is also a fact. Another fact is that the depth of inspiration and passion reflected by these remains is indicative of the ancients’ astrotheological religious tendencies.

The astronomical science of the ancients is the same used today to determine full moons, eclipses, conjunctions and other cosmic events both past and future. It is because of the ancient study that we have this capability today, although our abilities are just beginning to catch up to the archaeoastronomy of such peoples as the Maya and their forebears. This regression and loss of knowledge is due to cataclysm and destruction of human culture. Yet, the basics of this important knowledge were preserved because the ancients used myths as mnemonic devices passed along from generation to generation. This tradition was especially important during the thousands of years when writing was either non-existent or limited. Unfortunately, the key to this knowledge was nevertheless often lost, as the myths became believed as “historical fact.”… (28)

Zodiac in the synagogue at Beit Alpha, IsraelAstronomical or astrotheological knowledge reaches back to the dawn of humanity, appearing widespread and becoming highly developed over a period of millennia. In its entry on “Astrology,” the Catholic Encyclopedia describes the development of this archaic science in the ancient world:

The history of astrology is an important part of the history of the development of civilization, it goes back to the early days of the human race…. Astrology was…the foster-sister of astronomy, the science of the investigation of the heavens…. According to the belief of the early civilized races of the East, the stars were the source and at the same time the heralds of everything that happened, and the right to study the “godlike science” of astrology was a privilege of the priesthood. This was the case in Mesopotamia and Egypt, the oldest centres of civilization known to us in the East. The most ancient dwellers on the Euphrates, the Akkado-Sumerians, were believers in judicial astrology, which was closely interwoven with their worship of the stars. The same is true of their successors, the Babylonians and Assyrians, who were the chief exponents of astrology in antiquity…. The Assyro-Babylonian priests (Chaldeans) were the professional astrologers of classical antiquity. In its origin Chaldaic astrology also goes back to the worship of stars; this is proved by the religious symbolism of the most ancient cuneiform texts of the zodiac. The oldest astrological document extant is the work called “Namar-Beli” (Illumination of Bel) composed for King Sargon I (end of the third millennium B.C.) and contained in the cuneiform library of King Asurbanipal (668-626 B.C.)…. Even in the time of Chaldean, which should be called Assyrian, astrology, the five planets, together with the sun and moon, were divided according to their character and their position in the zodiac as well as according to their position in the twelve houses. As star of the sun, Saturn was the great planet and ruler of the heavens…. The Egyptians and Hindus were as zealous astrologers as the nations on the Euphrates and Tigris. The dependence of the early Egyptian star (sun) worship (the basis of the worship of Osiris) upon early Chaldaic influences belongs to the still unsettled question of the origin of early Egyptian civilization.

Thus, astrology – a “godlike science”—dates back thousands of years and has been an important part of human civilization. According to mainstream archaeology, the oldest extant text specifically addressing “astrology” dates from the 3rd millennium BCE; yet, the astrological religion or astrotheology is recorded abundantly in Indian, Egyptian and Sumerian sacred literature as well, some of which represents traditions much older than the third millennium. Also, as noted, megalithic ruins push astronomical knowledge back at least 6,000 to 6,500 years ago, while ancient mariners reveal such knowledge dating to 30,000 or more years ago…. (29-30)

In The Roots of Civilization, archaeologist Alexander Marshack discusses “calendar sticks,” or ancient bones with markings that Marshack determined represented lunar calendars, dating to at least 25,000 or 35,000 years ago. One of these artifacts is the “Ishango bone” discovered at Lake Edward in Zaire, and possibly dating to 18,000-23,000 BCE. Marshack found other such bones, from the Upper Paleolithic (30,000-10,000 BCE) or Aurignacian culture. Marshack’s contention that they are lunar calendars is not “set in stone,” but there is more than good reason to assume it to be accurate. In his book In Search of Ancient Astronomies, astronomer and past-director of Los Angeles’s Griffith Observatory, Dr. Edwin Krupp, relates:

Blanchard bone marks lunar cyclesThe Blanchard bone, a small piece of bone found in the Dordogne region of France inscribed by some Cro-Magnon individual about twenty thousand years ago, has a complicated pattern of marks. The shapes of the marks vary, and the sequence curves around in a serpentine pattern. In Marshack’s view the turns in the sequence represent, on one side, the times of dark, new moon, and on the other, bright full moon. Statistical analyses may not support Marshack’ s interpretations, but similar batons and sticks are carved for the same purpose by the Nicobar Islanders in the Bay of Bengal.”

Venus of Laussel holding horn with 13 notches, marking the moon and menseAt the very least, these bones demonstrate that the ancients knew how to count, to a certain point. The thesis that these bone markings also reflect the “moons” or menstrual periods of women is likewise sound; hence, it has been suggested, women were the “first mathematicians.” One of these women is represented on an 18-inch bas-relief called the “Venus of Laussel,” an image dating to the Aurignacian era, some 21,000 years ago. Originally painted in red ochre, suggesting menstrual blood, the Venus holds a curved bison horn with 13 notches, which represent the crescent moon and, apparently, the “Universal Vulva,” along with the annual lunar months and women’s menses. Significantly, the average menstrual cycle is 29.5 days, the same as the lunar month; hence, the two are intimately connected. In all probability, it was women’s observations of their menses that led to timekeeping. Another factor in the development of astronomy was the need for hunters to know the lunar cycle, so they could plan their hunt, based on the waxing or waning of the moon.

Lascaux, Summer Triangle, PleaidesIn the famous caves of Lascaux in France have been discovered star maps that date to 16,500 years ago and, according to Dr. Michael Rappenglueck of the University of Munich, record the Pleiades, or “Seven Sisters,” as well as the “Summer Triangle,” composed of the three stars Vega, Deneb and Altair. A 14,000-year-old star map recording the Northern Constellation was also found in the Cueva di El Castillo in Spain. The art of the ancients in such places as Lascaux and Alta Mira, Spain, dating to the Paleolithic (17,000+ Before Present), or Adduara, Sicily (15,000-10,000 BCE), shows a high degree of intelligence, comparable to that of humans today. In discussing the ancients it should be kept in mind that, despite the impression given by strict, linear-evolutionary thinking, humans at least 100,000 years ago (a number that keeps being pushed back) possessed the identical cranial capacity as they do today. Instead of a bunch of grunting ape-men, there were likely individuals among them with IQ’s similar to modern geniuses. It is probable that, as today, there were human beings living in varying states of “civilization,” with some prehistoric humans wearing rough skins and living in caves, while other early humans created more advanced culture…. (30-31)

The Archaic Winter Solstice

In Prehistoric Lunar Astronomy, S.B. Roy postulates that various artifacts found deep in caves, such as the painting known as “Sorcerer with the Antelope’s Head” from Les Trois Freres caves in the French Pyrenees, are representative of…secret deposits [relating to the mysteries]. These caves were occupied during the Magdalenian period, 10,000-16,000 years ago, although [mythologist] Robert Graves dates the paintings to “at least 20,000 B.C.” Regarding possible rituals performed in these caves, some of which are very inaccessible and would therefore likely represent the place of a secret, esoteric initiation, Roy remarks that they would “necessarily be performed at a particular auspicious moment,” upon which their potency would depend. This auspicious moment would be dependent on the solar and lunar phases, as well as the seasons: “The ancient wise men looked up at the heavens to ascertain the proper timing, because the Moon was the most ancient timekeeper, says Yaska [1400 BCE]…” Such “auspicious moments” can be dated using these astronomical keys.

Sorcerer with Antelope's Head Les Trois Freres CaveRoy posits that the antelope-headed “sorcerer” was “a figure marking the onset of a season.” The reasons for this assertion include that the “remote traditions” in the Rig Veda and in Vedic astronomy relate that the Stag’s head represents the star L-Orionis and the winter solstice at the new moon, as well as the summer solstice at the full moon. Roy concludes that the sorcerer figure “marked the winter solstice,” which was “a great day in the Ice Age of Europe.” Based on the astronomy, the figure dates to 10,600 BCE. Furthermore, this stag-headed sorcerer figure is similar to solar images on seals from the Indus Valley city of Mohenjo-Daro dating to the third millennium BCE.

Dating the migration of the European Magdalenian cave-dwellers to the recession of the “fourth glacial Wisconsin-Valders final sub-phase,” 10,000 years ago, Roy further states:

In Northern Europe and Asia, in latitudes of 60º and higher, where Slavonic languages now prevail, the winter was then long and dark. It was very cold. Everyone looked to the day of the winter solstice when the sun would turn North. The astronomers would know the date even though the sun itself was not visible. This was the great day, for the spring would now come.

Thus, the winter solstice was an important factor in human culture, particularly that of the cold, northern latitudes, at least 12,000 years ago. The winter solstice celebration that developed throughout much of the inhabited world has been handed down as “Christmas,” i.e., December 25th, the birthday of the sun of God. “Christmas” is thus an extremely ancient celebration, predating the Christian era by many millennia…. (33-34)

This is an excerpt from

Suns of God: Krishna, Buddha and Christ Unveiled

Check full article and further links at Stellar House Publishing

Extensive Ancient Underground Network Discovered From Scotland to Turkey

Archaeologists uncovered thousands of Stone Age underground tunnels, stretching across Europe from Scotland to Turkey, perplexing researchers as to their original purpose.

German archaeologist Dr Heinrich Kusch, in his book ‘Secrets of the Underground Door to an Ancient World’ revealed that tunnels were dug under literally hundreds of Neolithic settlements all over Europe and the fact that so many tunnels have survived 12,000 years indicates that the original network must have been huge.

‘In Bavaria in Germany alone we have found 700metres of these underground tunnel networks. In Styria in Austria we have found 350metres,’ he said. ‘Across Europe there were thousands of them – from the north in Scotland down to the Mediterranean.

The tunnels are quite small, measuring only 70cm in width, which is just enough for a person to crawl through. In some places there are small rooms, storage chambers and seating areas.

The Stone Age was the first of the three-age system of archaeology, which divides human technological prehistory into three periods: The Stone Age, The Bronze Age, The Iron Age. The transition out of the Stone Age occurred between 6000 BC and 2500 BC for much of humanity living in North Africa and Eurasia.  While many believe Stone Age humans were primitive, incredible discoveries such as the 12,000 year-old temple called Gobekli Tepe in  Turkey,  the pyramids of Egypt and other structures such as Stonehenge, which demonstrate extremely advanced astronomical knowledge indicates that they were not as primitive as many believe.

The discovery of a vast network of tunnels indicates that Stone Age humans were not just spending their days hunting and gathering.  However, the real purpose of the tunnels is still a matter of speculation. Some experts believe they were a way of protecting man from predators while others believe they were a way for people to travel safely, sheltered from harsh weather conditions or even wars and violence. However, at this stage scientists are only able to guess, as the tunnels have not yet revealed all their secrets of the past.

By April Holloway

Source: Ancient Origins

‘Homo Georgicus’: Georgia skull may prove early humans were single species

David Lordkipanidze, director of the Georgian National Museum, holding a well-preserved skull from 1.8 million years ago found found in the remains of a medieval hilltop city in Dmanisi on October 18, 2013 (AFP Photo / Vano Shlamov)

David Lordkipanidze, director of the Georgian National Museum, holding a well-preserved skull from 1.8 million years ago found found in the remains of a medieval hilltop city in Dmanisi on October 18, 2013 (AFP Photo / Vano Shlamov)

A 1.8 million-year-old skull found in Georgia could turn current understanding of evolution on its head. A new study claims that early man did not come from Africa as seven species, but was actually a single ‘homo erectus’ with variations in looks.

The case revolves around an early human skull found in a stunningly well-preserved state at an archaeological dig at the site of the medieval hill city of Dmanisi in Georgia, a study in the journal Science revealed on Thursday.

Stone tools were found next to the remains, indicating that the species hunted large carnivorous prey, including probably saber-toothed tigers.

A team of scientists spent over eight years studying the find, whose original date of excavation was 2005. Its jawbone was actually discovered back in 2000, but only recently have the parts been assembled to produce a complete skull.

New dating technology allowed scientists to establish that these early humans come from around 1.8 million years ago. Near to the bone fragments were the remains of huge prehistoric predators; the area is next to a river and was full of them, as they encountered humans in fights to the death.

The skull has a tiny brain about a third of the size of our modern Homo sapiens incarnation; it also has protruding brows, jutting jaws and other characteristics we have come to expect from lesser developed prehistoric humans.
But the surprising revelation came when the skull was placed next to four other skulls discovered within a 100-kilometer radius. They vary so much in appearance that it brings into question whether the current understanding of species variation is correct.

Traditional theories accept a whole plethora of stand-alone species – but the new find strongly hints that the five remains were all one, but with striking differences in bone structure that we have come to expect only from our own ‘complex’ kind.

This handout photo received October 17, 2013 shows a complete, approximately 1.8-million-year-old hominid skull from Dmanisi, Georgia (AFP Photo / Georgian National Museum / Handout)

This handout photo received October 17, 2013 shows a complete, approximately 1.8-million-year-old hominid skull from Dmanisi, Georgia (AFP Photo / Georgian National Museum / Handout)

Director of the Georgian National Museum and lead researcher, David Lordkipanidze, has come out with the claim that the find is “the richest and most complete collection of indisputable early Homo remains from any one site.”
“Dmansi is a unique snapshot of time – maybe a time capsule that preserves things from 1.8 million years ago,” he told AFP.

Adding weight to the new hypothesis, co-author of the study, Christoph Zollikofer of the University of Zurich, judged that despite the striking dissimilarities “we know that these individuals came from the same location and the same geological time, so they could, in principle, represent a single population of a single species.”

The differences in the skulls’ eyebrow ridges, jaws and other features were all consistent with what paleontologists expect of variations within the same species.

“The five Dmanisi individuals are conspicuously different from each other, but not more different than any five modern human individuals, or five chimpanzee individuals, from a given population,” Zollikofer continued.

This has led scientists to conclude that, while previously we thought that intra-species variation was an exception, it could very well be a rule instead.

For decades researchers would separate all types of humans originating in Africa into separate sub-groups – with examples including the Homo habilis, the Homo rudolfensis, and so on. The new hypothesis suggests these could all just be Homo erectus, with the regular human variation in bone structure we witness in our own Homo sapiens peers. 3D modeling shows this clearly.

It also challenges the notion that we needed a larger cranial capacity – or brain – in order to be intelligent enough to use complex tools, hunt large prey and migrate to distant continents. It appears the humans found at the Georgian site actually migrated to Asia despite not being very ‘bright.’

Milford Wolpoff of the University of Michigan told AFP that the team was “thrilled about the conclusion they came to. It backs up what we found as well.”  He was working with a colleague from Wellesley College during a study they published a year ago, which also targeted statistical variations in characteristics of skulls from Georgia and East Africa – considered to be one of the cradles of human civilization.

The study suggested active inter-species breeding was commonplace back in those days.

“Everyone knows today you could find your mate from a different continent and it is normal for people to marry outside their local group, outside their religion, outside their culture…[but] what this really helps show is that this has been the human pattern for most of our history, at least outside of Africa,” Wolpoff explained.

However, challengers to the hypothesis believe otherwise. Their main qualm with the hypothesis is that the skull may simply have belonged to a new species of human – not a variation of Homo erectus.

Bernard Wood of George Washington University believes the conclusions of the Dmanisi research team to be misguided.

“What they have is a creature that we have not seen evidence of before,” Wood said in reference to the small head but human-looking body of the early hominid.

Wood feels that the small human has been deprived of what could rightfully be a separate Homo – a Homo georgicus.

However, this matters little to the case at hand – that a new form of human has been discovered and that its practices strongly suggest that its life patterns and differences in features very closely mimicked what we see today in our modern selves.

Via RT

Link

How Many Pyramids are in the World?

If you ask yourself how many pyramids are in the world you will be lost in thoughts. And it least you wouldn’t find the right number. No matter who you are a person who has never interested in pyramids or you have PhD in History, it’s not matter you do not find an answer on this question. Let me tell you a truth that nobody knows how many pyramids are in the world. Moreover it’s really not easy to count all pyramids and tell the total number. I have been researching pyramids studies for more than 10 years and never saw a research about that. That’s why I would like to do a small research on this problem where I’ll show you have many pyramids are in the world (approximately of course) and why it’s not easy to make the worldwide research and to count all of them.

20131025-111150.jpg20131025-111202.jpg20131025-111212.jpg