Traces of Neanderthal Virus DNA Found in Modern Human Genomes

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Even though the last common ancestor of Homo sapiens and Neanderthals lived at least 400,000 years ago, traces of our cousins can still be found in our DNA. Fragments of DNA from viruses that affected Neanderthals have been found in modern human genomes according to new research led by Emanuele Marchi from the University of Oxford’s Department of Zoology, which was was published online this month in Current Biology.

Marchi’s results show that humans today have traces of Neanderthal viruses in portions of our DNA that don’t code for protein. DNA from Denisovan bone fragments was compared with genetic samples from Neanderthals and cancer patients today. The results showed that viruses that infected Neanderthals nearly half a million years ago can still be found in our genomes today, and researchers aren’t sure yet what implications that DNA may have for modern diseases like HIV and cancer.

Viral DNA that gets passed down though DNA is known as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). While ERVs make up almost a tenth of our genomes, it is found in regions that we don’t really understand. There are hints that some of these ERVs can team up to cause disease, but it requires a lot more study. Future research will seek to understand ERVs better to determine if it still has pathogenic properties and if those ancient genetic sequences can possibly be used to target treatments.

As genetic sequencing techniques continue to improve, we will continue to understand our evolutionary history more completely. By learning more about what makes us who we are, we will be able to exploit those processes to improve our quality of life while we’re here and will make it better for those who come after.

Found on: ifl science

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Scientific Proof That Our DNA Is Mutating?

The research of human DNA has recently been enjoying a huge increase of interest by a broad audience.
Modern genetic research makes it possible to trace populations and their migrations back into a distant past in order to shed some light on the mysterious origins of man. But it also holds the chance for us to eventually have a look into the future and have some hints of what the future of mankind might look like. Where’s our species going?

The idea that human DNA might consist of 12 strands instead of two – having the remaining strands to be (re)activated – or that it might evolve into having 12 strands has been making its way through the Internet and media for several years now. And while conservative scholars didn’t consider this idea noteworthy in any way, the recent stunning story of UK toddler Alfie Clamp has fueled the debate around such hypothesis again.

Gregg Prescott from in5D which we quoted already in several occasions, is convinced that the story of Alfie Clamp and a few more facts constitute scientific proof for our DNA to be mutating.

The following interview and description of facts are extracted from an article of Gregg Prescott that recently appeared on WakingTimes. Following the explicit request of Waking Times to spread the content, we’re reproduce this content for distribution and further sharing.

We are taking an evolutionary leap

Dr. Berrenda Fox is a holistic practitioner of the Avalon Wellness Centre in Mt Shasta, California. In an interview with Patricia Resch, Dr. Fox stated the following:

PR: What are the changes that are happening at this time on the planet, and how are our bodies being affected?

BF: There are major changes, mutations that haven’t occurred, according to geneticists, since the time we supposedly came out of the water. Several years ago in Mexico City there was a convention of geneticists from around the world, and the main topic was the DNA change. We are making an evolutionary change, yet we don’t know what we are changing into.

PR: How is our DNA changing?

BF: Everyone has one double helix of DNA. What we are finding is that there are other helixes that are being formed. In the double helix there are two strands of DNA coiled into a spiral. It is my understanding that we will be developing twelve helixes. During this time, which seems to have started maybe 5 to 20 years ago, we have been mutating. This is the scientific explanation. It is a mutation of our species into something for which the end result is not yet known.

The changes are not known publicly, because the scientific community feels it would frighten the population. However, people are changing at the cellular level. I am working with three children right now who have three DNA helixes. Most people know and feel this. Many religions have talked about the change and know it will come about in different ways. We know it is a positive mutation even though physically, mentally, and emotionally it can be misunderstood and frightening.

PR: Are these children displaying any characteristics different from other children?

BF: These are children who can move objects across the room just by concentrating on them, or they can fill glasses of water just by looking at them. They’re telepathic. You would almost think by knowing these children that they are half angelic or superhuman, but they’re not. I think they are what we are growing into during the next few decades.

PR: Do you think this will happen to all of us?

BF: It seems like most people who were born before 1940 have not been able to make the shift, but have initiated something into the next generation that gives them the capacity to form another helix within our lifetime. Our immune and endocrine systems are the most evident of these changes. That is one of the reasons I work with research in immunological testing and therapy.

Some adults that I have tested actually do have another DNA helix forming. Some are even getting their third. These people are going through a lot of major shifts in their consciousness and physical bodies, because it is all one. In my opinion, the Earth and everyone here is raising its vibration. Many of the children born recently have bodies that are magnetically lighter.

PR: What other changes should we expect to see?

BF: There will be no disease, we will not need to die. We will be able to learn our lessons, not through suffering, but through joy and love. The old system has to crumble away, and is not doing that without putting up a big fight. So you have all the wars; a lot of the medical-type of healing is not working; the government is not working.

Biophotons and DNA

Dr. Fritz Albert Popp’s research confirmed the existence of biophotons, which are particles of light, with no mass, that transmit information within and between cells. Dr. Popp discovered that the coherent emission of bio-photons is connected to energy and information transfer processes in the biological organisms, and has been linked to the function of DNA and to gene regulation.

In simpler terms, our bodies not only emit light, but they also store light within our DNA.

“A living cell requires energy not only for all its functions, but also for the maintenance of its structure. Without energy, life would be extinguished instantaneously, and the cellular fabric would collapse. The source of this energy is the sun’s radiation.”

Nobel Peace Prize recipient and Hungarian biochemist Albert von Szent-Györgyi

“The eyes are precisely where the solar radiation that feeds life enters the body.” – Johan Boswinkel

Four strand DNA reported by mainstream media

In a science article on NBC, ” researchers have found four-stranded DNA is also lurking in human cells. The odd structures are called G-quadruplexes because they form in regions of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that are full of guanine, one of the DNA molecule’s four building blocks, with the others being adenine, cytosine, thymine. The structure comprises four guanines held together by a type of hydrogen bonding to form a sort of squarelike shape. (The DNA molecule is itself a double strand held together by these building blocks and wrapped together like a helix.)”

“The study showed that if an inhibitor is used to block DNA replication, quadruplex levels go down – proving the idea that DNA is dynamic, with structures constantly being formed and unformed.”

Is it possible that vaccinations, chemtrails and GMO’s have been acting as DNA inhibitors up until this point in time?

Reprogramming your DNA through words and frequencies

Dr. Peter Gariaev’s research into DNA concluded that DNA may be the universal language of spirituality, adding “wave genetics” shows that DNA functions like a holographic computer, part of the larger hologram of the information wave reality. Our DNA has the capabilities of hypercommunication—telepathy, remote sensing and remote feeling, along with other psychic abilities. We also have the ability to reprogram our genetic blueprint with simple word and frequencies.

How can we change our DNA right now?

Dr Masaru Emoto’s research has concluded that water has consciousness. Based on this premise, I have decided to experiment with water, Ho’oponopono, sigils and positive affirmations.

In February of 2012, I started drinking distilled water as recommended by Andrew Norton Webber.

I also drastically changed my eating habits from your typical processed food, GMO-ladened diet to virtually all organic, including grass fed meat, fresh squeezed juices and homemade smoothies. Initially, I noticed an immediate change in my complexion as well as energy levels but after 7 months or so, I also noticed that I was losing my hair and wondered if that was attributed to drinking distilled water, so I stopped doing this but soon found something even more amazing.

After researching the benefits of ozone water, I decided to buy an ozone generator to infuse my water with extra oxygen. In addition, as per Dr. Masaru Emoto’s research into the consciousness of water, I added affirmations and Ho’oponopono.

Ho’oponopono is the Hawaiian Code of Forgiveness that follows 4 simple mantras:

1. I love you.

2. I’m sorry.

3. Please forgive me.

4. Thank you.

Dr. Masaru Emoto’s research show us that water has consciousness, so I combined Ho’oponopono with positive self-affirmations.

My affirmations are:

1. My pineal gland is fully open.

2. My chakras are clear and balanced.

3. My DNA codes are fully open to allow me to help myself and others in the best interests of humanity.

I decided to take this one step further after researching the power of sigils. A sigil is an inscribed or painted symbol considered by many to have magical powers.

Many corporate logos use symbols as a way to subconsciously influence us. A perfect example would be the Shell logo, which innocently looks like a shell, but it actually represents the sun and sun-worshipping, which preexisted before many religious belief systems.

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Exxon uses symbols and sigils as a way to represent Saturn. In astrotheology, Saturn is Satan. Did you ever wonder why we exchange rings during wedding ceremonies? The rings represent the rings of Saturn (Satan). Look no further than the pre-Christian Chritmas-time celebration of Saturnalia, which was a week of debauchery and drunkenness.

In this world of polarity and duality, the same practices can be done with pure intent.

I decided to make a sigil glass that contained all of my affirmations. This is what it looks like:

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I buy 5 gallon jugs of BPA free spring water from Zephyrhills and dispense it from a water cooler. Even my dog drinks this water! I have an ozone machine by the water dispenser.

The particular ozone machine that I use is a A2Z Ozone Aqua 6 Multi Purpose Ozone Generator because it gives me the biggest bang for the buck with a 600 mg/h ozone output.

After pouring water into my sigil glass, I speak my affirmations to the water, then I apply Ho’oponopono. I finish by saying, “Please send these messages to every cell in my body. Namaste.”

It is important to keep in mind that the ozone leaves the water relatively quickly, so your best bet is to drink it as quickly as possible. Some reports say that it only lasts up to an hour or two before dissipating.

High pitched frequencies and DNA

Many people are hearing high pitched frequencies that are not associated with tinnitus or a Vitamin D deficiency and some people believe these have something to do with a DNA upgrade.

In an In5D poll on the article, Do you hear perpetual high pitched frequencies? You’re not alone!, 97.8 people who responded confirmed hearing high pitched frequencies. Is there a spiritual reason for these frequencies and/or is it possible that they are helping to evolve our DNA?

As a musician, it’s easy for me to figure out what tones I hear, which are predominantly in the key of B, but also in F# and C. What sounds do you hear, if any?

We are beings of LIGHT

Science has proven that our DNA is evolving. In order to keep the status quo, is it possible that our vaccinations are working as inhibitors to deter this process? Despit the vaccinations, GMO’s and chemtrails, is it possible that our DNA will continue to evolve into a form of higher consciousness?

Only time will tell…

“We know today that man, essentially, is a being of light. And the modern science of photobiology is presently proving this. In terms of healing the implications are immense. We now know, for example, that quanta of light can initiate, or arrest, cascade-like reactions in the cells, and that genetic cellular damage can be virtually repaired, within hours, by faint beams of light.

We are still on the threshold of fully understanding the complex relationship between light and life, but we can now say emphatically, that the function of our entire metabolism is dependent on light.” – Dr. Fritz Albert Popp

About the Author

Gregg Prescott, M.S. is the founder and editor of In5D and BodyMindSoulSpirit. He hosts a weekly spiritual show on In5D Radio and promotes spiritual, metaphysical and esoteric conferences in the United States through In5dEvents. Gregg is currently working in collaboration with Michelle Walling, CHLC, in opening a holistic walk-in clinic called Alternative Holistic Healthcare (AHH) in Sarasota, FL with subsequent subsidiaries around the world based upon this model.

Original article

The Red-Haired Race And The Atlantean Connection: III The Americas

Peru_Nazca_AstronautThe myths of Native Americans sustain that when their ancestors arrived in the Americas, they met an already existing population in the new lands, which they describe as mythical beings.
Was there an unknown culture on the American continent the existence of which goes back to before the last Ice Age? Who were they?
To find some elements that might support this idea, we need to have a look at modern DNA testing.
DNA – the European connection

According to the prevailing New World migration model, migrations of humans from Eurasia to the Americas took place via Beringia, a land bridge that connected the two continents across what is now the Bering Strait. The most recent migration could have taken place around 12,000 years ago, with the earliest period remaining a matter of some unresolved contention. These early Paleo-Indians soon spread throughout the continent, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes.
However, modern DNA analysis sheds some new light on this theory, leaving scholars with more questions than answers.
In molecular evolution, a haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor. A haplogroup from mitochondrial DNA can be understood as a marker that can be used to define genetic populations and their migrations. In human genetics, the haplogroups most commonly studied are Y-chromosome (Y-DNA) haplogroups and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, both of which can be used to backtrack the migrations and geographical origins of our ancestors.
There are five different haplogroups found within the native tribes of the Americas. In this article and for the purpose, we will focus on only one of them: the haplogroup X.
Haplogroup X is believed to be one of the original haplogroups of the continent. It is present in all indigenous people, with a bigger concentration in some tribes and areas than in others.
Unlike the four main Native American mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C, D), and the Y-chromosome sub-haplogroup Q1a3a, X is not at all strongly associated with East Asia. It is only found in small quantities in Western Asian areas, like in the Altay people in Southwestern Siberia. However, it is found in approximately 7% of native Europeans, and 3% of all Native Americans from North America.
The question that arises from these discoveries is of course:
If the Native Americans migrated once over the Bering Bridge to the Americas and originated in Asia, how is it possible that haplogroup X exists in the Americas and in Europe, but not in (Eastern) Asian populations?

lost-civilizations-3-figure.jpgEuropean genes: the scientific debate about the migration into the American continent

Through the analysis of various mutations within haplogroup X, scientists are able to use that “genetic clock” to estimate the time of arrival of those early Europeans. Depending on how large a group they assume headed west, they come up with two time ranges – either between 36,000 and 23,000 years ago or between 17,000 and 12,000 years ago. It is for sure that the DNA did not arrive in America with the European explorers of the last 500 years or so. European X and American X are different enough to establish with certainty they must have diverged thousands of years ago. That is long before the age of exploration introduced European genes to the New World. Interestingly, DNA testing on pre-Columbian Native American skeletal remains showed that haplogroup X was present in those ancient peoples in the same proportion as it is in modern Native American tribes.
The results offer a completely new look on how the American continent was populated and confirm that the cultural similarities between ancient peoples on different continents might be much more than just a coincidence. Scientists try to explain these facts with new theories about the population of the New World. They believe that the Solutreans of Spain might have crossed the Atlantic using the southern Equatorial current and entered the Caribbean and Central America between 18,000 and 12,000 years ago. They would then become known as the Clovis hunters of America. Clovis, with its distinctive biface, blade and osseous technologies, is the oldest widespread archaeological complex defined in North America, dating from 11,100 to 10,700 years before present (13,000 to 12,600 calendar years bp). However, the DNA analysis of a child’s bones from 12,600 years ago, discovered in the U.S. state Montana, made scientists conclude that those early inhabitants of the American continent migrated to the Americas from Siberia and are therefore of Asian origin.
The recent genetic findings mentioned above suggest also that the people now known as Gaelic speaking Celts (including Irish, Welsh, Scots, Basques and Berbers) are a remnant of a group of people who also left Spain between 18,000 and 12,000 years ago and spent 6,000 years isolated from Europe before returning, bringing the Megalithic culture to coastal Europe.
Considering the cultural findings of the populations in Europe from 18,000 years ago, the question arises whether it is realistic to suppose that those people were able to travel across the ocean to reach the American East cost. Which was the motivation for them to migrate and how did they know that there was another continent on the other side? And if they didn’t know – why would they undertake such a possibly fatal adventure?
These questions remain, until now, unanswered.

Legends

The Paiutes, a Native-American tribe indigenous to parts of Nevada, Utah and Arizona, told early white settlers about their ancestors’ battles with a ferocious race of white, red-haired giants. According to the Paiutes, the giants were already living in the area.
Interestingly, this corresponds to an Egyptian popular, allegorical legend that seems to report the war-like conflicts between the gods and an evil red-haired race. The legend influenced Egyptian Afterlife traditions and led to the human sacrifice of red-haired people. Later on, as already stated in previous articles, Egypt suddenly had a red-haired king. And while this is a fact that researchers accept saying “the customs had changed in the new kingdom”, one wonders what may have happened to make Egyptian people worship a pharaoh who seemingly was the descendant of their lethal enemy.
Other tribes on the American continent describe the people that their ancestors found at their arrival on the continent as mythical beings with super natural powers. This corresponds to important legends of Central and South American peoples.
The Mayas and POMA0106vAztecs recorded their encounters with a race of giants that lived in the north, and everywhere in the populations of the Andes Mountains we find the same legend of a tall, bearded man with fair skin who appeared coming over the ocean. He arrived in times of great trouble when the sun had disappeared and flood had devastated Earth. They called him Viracocha.
The stranger was a man of incredible knowledge. He was a great architect, scientist, engineer and mason. He was generous and loving and taught people how to make a better living for themselves. He was tall, physically strong and had mythical powers that enabled him to form landscapes and create water springs. He told the people to treat each other with love and respect and do good for others.
One day a group of people in a village stood up against him and threatened him physically. As he was in danger, the man suddenly fell on his knees and lifted up his hands towards the sky, and instantly a fire appeared from the heavens then engulfed him and the people who had aggressed him. They were so frightened that they dropped all weapons, seeking forgiveness.
At his willpower, the fire disappeared. But the bearded man went down to the ocean and stepped into the waves. He promised to come back, but he was never seen again.
The people who witnessed his farewell called him “Viracocha”, which means “Foam of the Ocean”.
Nobody knows who the Viracocha was. Ancient Spanish documents report that a marble statue of the Viracocha existed once in Coriancha in Peru. The statue was described as to look like Saint Bartholomeus. Other sources said that it looked like Saint Thomas.
One thing is for sure: whoever he was, the Viracocha was certainly not a Native American, but rather someone of Caucasian appearance.
A similar story is told about the Mesoamerican deity Quetzalcoatl.
The name originates from Nahuatl language and means “feather serpent”. Many depictions show him exactly as that.
The legends say that Quetzacoatl arrived coming from the ocean to the land that today is Mexico. He was described as a tall man with light skin and a beard and as a powerful if also ethereal being.
Quetzacoatl brought the peoples of the area great knowledge. He was a mathematician, and it is believed that he was the one who gave the Mayas their complex calendar, based on his formulas.
The Spanish who have documented the conquest of America describe the being they had heard of as a man with light skin with a long beard, tall and with a high forehead, big hazel eyes and physically strong. He refused blood sacrifices and predicated peace. 7163838
Throughout the continent, Quetzacoatl was called with different names. In Chichen Itzá he was called Kukulcan, and the Quiché-Maya called him Gucumatz. Both names again mean “feathered serpent”. Other names for him were Itzamana and Votan. All these Gods brought culture and knowledge to the peoples that came in contact with them. All of them came across the ocean, and all of them went back into the waters with the promise to come back.
It is very unlikely that the parallels in these legends are mere coincidence. Did the Native Americans imagine people of Caucasian appearance long before the first Europeans arrived on the continent? Or is it possible that they had actually seen such people before the arrival of the official discoverers?
It is said today by scholars that the Spaniards who documented the conquest of Mesoamerica, might have changed the stories told to them in a way that Mesoamerican deities became more and more similar to Europeans. But it is a widely known story that when the Spanish Conquistadores under Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro reached the shores of what is today Mexico, the Aztec King Montezuma and his people went to greet the visitors and honored them as returning Gods. The Aztecs were warriors and certainly conscious of the possibility that strangers who appeared at their coasts might not have come with peaceful intentions. If the description of a light skinned and bearded Quetzalcoatl were the mere fantasy of the Spaniards, why did the Aztecs consider them returning Gods?

Red-haired mummies of the Americas: survivors of a sunken continent?

In North America, red-haired mummies have been found in Michigan, Illinois, New York State, Virgina, Arizona and Nevada.
In South America, red-haired mummies and giant humanoid bones have been unearthed in Peru, Brazil, Chile, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Columbia.
71690219-mummies-the The finds had a major impact on common theories about early populations and their migrations and changed the widely accepted theory of the population of the Americas entirely, enhanced by modern genetic research. The debate stretches from theories about different simultaneous migrations into the Americas to claims about racist intentions.
Fact is, however, that up to the current day, nobody has a clear answer to the allover question: how is it possible that there are genetic and cultural similarities in ancient populations in many places on the globe, very distant from each other, if we assume that the cultures in those places had no direct contact? With the latest DNA results, scientists saw themselves forced to drop this latter claim. Yet, any kind of contact doesn’t explain why red-haired mummies are found all over the globe, and why the cultural impact on all other peoples was so striking. And it has yet to be found out which human race’s members were taller than modern man and characterized by red hair.
Not later than now, the question arises: was there eventually an earlier civilization, possibly highly advanced, that migrated into other continents? And if so, what were their motivations? Were they just a belligerent, aggressive people who wanted to expand and subdue all other populations? But then again, who were they? Common history about human ancestry has ignored those people’s existence entirely. They weren’t actually known until the evidence of their existence popped up with the discoveries of the mummies. So, where was their home place? Where did they originate from? Were they really descendants of European races? Or are the European races rather descendants from a people that at some point landed on European shores? Are they the so called “Civilization X”, the mysterious culture previous to everything we know about the history of mankind?

Atlantis

Many hypothesis of the location of the mythical continent Atlantis have been made since Plato mentioned it in his works Timaeus and Critias. Many researchers consider it a great possibility that it was somewhere in the Atlantic Ocean. When it sank into the floods, some people could have managed to escape and reached the shores of distant continents. They might have brought their knowledge and culture to other tribes and peoples; they might have come in confAthanasius_Kircher's_Atlantislict with them or tried to subdue them. However, this hypothesis would solve the DNA riddle, and explain apparently incomprehensible similarities in the different cultures. It would explain why the mysterious tall redheads appear in the tales of cultures that live far away from each other and why their mummified remains are being found in the most unthinkable places all over the globe.
Unfortunately, when we search for official information about the mythical continent, we find out that its real existence keeps not being considered a possibility by scholars.
In Wikipedia, the article about Atlantis opens with the words: “Atlantis (…) is the name of a fictional island mentioned within an allegory on the hubris of nations in Plato’s works Timaeus and Critias, where it represents the antagonist naval power that besieges “Ancient Athens”, the pseudo-historic embodiment of Plato’s ideal.”
Nevertheless, the fascination by the story and the search for hints for its real existence will likely never cease. Atlantis would have existed in a very distant time. Swallowed by the ocean, it left no considerable trace of its existence. Therefore, for modern science it remains a fairy tale.
Nevertheless, putting together lose ends researching genetic and anthropological mysteries, the sunken continent offers a much better explanation than many scientific theories of today.

 

 

Sources:
http://users.on.net/~mkfenn/page9.htm
http://badarchaeology.wordpress.com/2014/02/15/the-paracas-skulls-aliens-an-unknown-hominid-species-or-cranial-deformation
http://frontiers-of-anthropology.blogspot.de/2012/04/redhaired-mummies-and-giants-of-united.html
http://www.pbs.org/saf/1406/features/dna2.htm
http://ironlight.wordpress.com/2010/07/10/nevadas-mysterious-cave-of-the-red-haired-giants/
http://blog.world-mysteries.com/ancient-writings/the-red-haired-race/
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v506/n7487/full/nature13025.html
http://www.heritagedaily.com/2014/02/origins-of-americas-first-humans/102120
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/mummies_01.shtml

Fernando S. Gallegos, “The Ancients”

Image credit: http://www.louiethomas.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/atlantis3.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

US Scientists Created An Entirely New Lifeform With Artificial DNA

20111006-DNA-Testing-Getty-94114031The first living organism to carry and pass down to future generations an expanded genetic code has been created by American scientists, paving the way for a host of new life forms whose cells carry synthetic DNA that looks nothing like the normal genetic code of natural organisms.

Researchers say the work challenges the dogma that the molecules of life making up DNA are “special”.

Organisms that carry the beefed-up DNA code could be designed to churn out new forms of drugs that otherwise could not be made, they have claimed.

“This has very important implications for our understanding of life,” said Floyd Romesberg, whose team created the organism at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California. “For so long people have thought that DNA was the way it was because it had to be, that it was somehow the perfect molecule.”

From the moment life gained a foothold on Earth the diversity of organisms has been written in a DNA code of four letters. The latest study moves life beyond G, T, C and A – the molecules or bases that pair up in the DNA helix – and introduces two new letters of life: X and Y.

Romesberg started out with E coli, a bug normally found in soil and carried by people. Into this he inserted a loop of genetic material that carried normal DNA and two synthetic DNA bases. Though known as X and Y for simplicity, the artificial DNA bases have much longer chemical names, which themselves abbreviate to d5SICS and dNaM.

 DNA+sequenceDNA sequence

In living organisms, G, T, C and A come together to form two base pairs, G-C and T-A. The extra synthetic DNA forms a third base pair, X-Y, according to the study in Nature. These base pairs are used to make genes, which cells use as templates for making proteins.

Romesberg found that when the modified bacteria divided they passed on the natural DNA as expected. But they also replicated the synthetic code and passed that on to the next generation. That generation of bugs did the same.

“What we have now, for the first time, is an organism that stably harbours a third base pair, and it is utterly different to the natural ones,” Romesberg said. For now the synthetic DNA does not do anything in the cell. It just sits there. But Romesberg now wants to tweak the organism so that it can put the artificial DNA to good use.

“This is just a beautiful piece of work,” said Martin Fussenegger, a synthetic biologist at ETH Zurich. “DNA replication is really the cream of the crop of evolution which operates the same way in all living systems. Seeing that this machinery works with synthetic base pairs is just fascinating.”

The possibilities for such organisms are still up for grabs. The synthetic DNA code could be used to build biological circuits in cells which do not interfere with the natural biological function; scientists could make cells which use the DNA to manufacture proteins not known to exist in nature. The development could lead to a vast range of protein-based drugs.

The field of synthetic biology has been controversial in the past. Some observers have raised concerns that scientists could create artificial organisms which could then escape from laboratories and spark an environmental or health disaster.

More than 10 years ago, the scientsist Eckard Wimmer, at Stony Brook University, in New York, recreated the polio virus from scratch to highlight the dangers.

Romesberg said that organisms carrying his “unnatural” DNA code had a built-in safety mechanism. The modified bugs could only survive if they were fed the chemicals they needed to replicate the synthetic DNA. Experiments in the lab showed that without these chemicals, the bugs steadily lost the synthetic DNA as they could no longer make it.

“There are a lot of people concerned about synthetic biology because it deals with life, and those concerns are completely justified,” Romesberg said. “Society needs to understand what it is and make rational decisions about what it wants.”

Ross Thyer, at the University of Texas, in Austin, suggested the synthetic DNA could become an essential part of an organism’s own DNA. “Human engineering would result in an organism which permanently contains an expanded genetic alphabet, something that, to our knowledge, no naturally occurring life form has accomplished.

“What would such an organism do with an expanded genetic alphabet? We don’t know. Could it lead to more sophisticated storage of biological information? More complicated or subtle regulatory networks? These are all questions we can look forward to exploring.”

Original article appeared on guardian.co.uk

The Red-Haired Race And The Atlantean Connection

Part II: Amentet and Elysium
Amentet: the mythical land in the West of the Egyptians

City of GoldWith the following look at the goddess Amentet and at Amenty, the Land of the West of the Egyptians, we’ll try to find out whether the Egyptians eventually referred to Atlantis and if so, where they located it.
Amentet (Ament, Amentit, Imentet, Imentit) was the Egyptian goddess and friend of the dead, and the personification of the Land of the West, Amenty – imnty. It was she who welcomed the deceased to their new dwelling place in the netherworld. She was also a goddess who helped with the rebirthing process, and thus a goddess of fertility and rebirth, who regenerated the deceased with food.amentet_wall
According to scholars, the word ‘Amentet’, as used by the Egyptians, was applied to the west bank of the Nile – Egyptian cemeteries and funerary places were all on the west. To the Egyptians, west was a direction linked to death. Amentet was also the name of the underworld – the place where Ra travelled during the night. The place where the sun set was also called by this name, being the entrance to the land of the dead according to Egyptian belief. Amentet – ‘She of the West’ – was therefore the goddess of not only the land of the dead, but also of the entry to the underworld, and of the west itself. (Source: Caroline Seawright).

However, the Egyptologist E.A. Wallis Budge writes :

“Amenti or Amentet was originally the place where the sun set, but subsequently the name was applied to the cemeteries and tombs which were usually built or hewn in the stony plateaus and mountains on the western bank of the Nile. Some believe that Amenti was, at first, the name of a small district, without either funereal or mythological signification. The Christian Egyptians or Copts used the word Amend to translate the Greek word Hades, to which they attributed all the ideas which their heathen ancestors had associated with the Amenti of The Book of the Dead. ”
(Wallis Budge E.A. 2011, The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Papyrus of Ani in the British Museum, p. cxxxiii)

So, Amentet was a “western region”, a district from the homeland. In Egyptian writings, Amentet is referred to as the world of the deceased as well as a lost western homeland. This would be a logical way of remembering a sunken continent in the West that maybe constituted the very base of the Egyptian culture itself. In this context it is also interesting to remember that the Egyptian historian Manetho mentioned that the ancient god kings reigned in a foreign land (also see: Manetho’s king list).
The hieroglyphs of set (“foreign land”, or a mountain land, or the world of the deceased, the Underworld) and Amentet are very similar to each other: set looks like a base with three waves, while Amentet looks the same with two dots or half circles over two of the waves. Amentet can mean West, Land of the West or Underworld.

imagesamentet

Was the mythical Amentet a legend that changed over time, based on the existence of a landmass that had sunken into the ocean a long time before?

If Atlantis was in the West, and, as Plato states, “beyond the Pillars of Hercules” which was the phrase that was applied in Antiquity to the promontories that flank the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar – then maybe we have a hint to where Atlantis actually laid: in the ocean today called the Atlantic Ocean, like many people think. This might explain the similarities between the Egyptian and the South- and Mesoamerican cultures: if a landmass, big enough to be called a continent, sank into the Atlantic Ocean, survivors might eventually have arrived on the shores of Western Europe and Africa, as well as on the Eastern coasts of the Americas.

We’ll leave the Americas for later to find out more about the connection between the red-haired people and Atlantis. At this point, it makes sense to have an excursion to ancient Greece before passing on to the American continent, and focus on Amentet’s Greek counterpart: the Isles of the Blessed Hesiod.

Greek mythology: the redheaded ruler of Atlantis

Elysium “is a conception of the afterlife that developed over time and was maintained by certain Greek religious and philosophical sects and cults. Initially separate from the realm of Hades, admission was reserved for mortals related to the gods and other heroes. Later, it expanded to include those chosen by the gods, the righteous, and the heroic, where they would remain after death, to live a blessed and happy life, and indulging in whatever employment they had enjoyed in life. The Elysian Fields were, according to Homer, located on the western edge of the Earth by the stream of Okeanos.”  (Wikipedia)

In the time of the Greek oral poet Hesiod, Elysium would also be known as the Fortunate Isles or the Isles (or Islands) of the Blessed, located in the western ocean at the end of the earth.Rhadamathus
Again, here we encounter the idea of a land in the West, consisting of several isles, like in the description of Amentet.
The Isles of the Blessed would be reduced to a single island by the Thebean poet Pindar, describing it as having shady parks, with residents indulging their athletic and musical pastimes.
The ruler of Elysium according to Pindar and Hesiod was Cronus but varies from author to author.

What seems really striking in this context after everything that has already been said is the fact that Homer mentions Rhadamanthus as the ruler of Atlantis.

In Homer’s description, Radhamanthus was a redhead – or at least, it’s pointed out that he was fair-haired.

Manetho’s god-kings and Plato’s kings of Atlantis

PlatoAlmost everything we heard about Atlantis, was said by Greek philosopher Plato.
According to Plato, the original kings of Atlantis were the ten sons of Poseidon and Cleito. Allegedly, Cleito gave birth five times to a couple of male twins. The first born was Atlas who ruled over all others.
The fact that Cleito should have given birth to just ten males and no female child seemed so incredible to many researchers that this fact is part of Atlantis being considered a result of Plato’s fantasy.
However, not only was the number 10 a very important factor in the rise and fall of Atlantis, but the number 10 for itself and as the number of kingdoms of Atlantis is perpetual in all ancient traditions.

“…‘In the number given by the Bible for the Antediluvian patriarchs we have the first instance of a striking agreement with the traditions of various nations. Other nations, to whatever epoch they carry back their ancestors…are constant to the sacred number of ten… In Chaldea (Babylon), Berosus, writing in the third century BC, numerates ten Antediluvian kings whose fabulous reign extended to thousands of years. The legends of the Iranian race commence with the reign of ten Peisdadien (Poseidon?) kings…. In India we meet with the nine Brahmadikas, who, with Brahma, their founder, make ten, and who are called the Ten Petris, or Fathers. The Chinese count ten emperors, partaking of the divine nature, before the dawn of historical time. The Germans believed in the ten ancestors of Odin, and the Arabs in the ten mythical kings of the Adites”. Although Babylon is supposed to have had ten kings before the Flood, it must be noted that they reigned successively rather than concurrently, as was the case in Atlantis.” (Ancient History of the East, Lenormant and Chevallier, vol. ii)

Egyptian historian and priest Manetho called the first sequence of Egyptian god-kings ‘Auriteans’. So, the idea emerges that Manetho’s god-kings are the same rulers as Plato’s kings of Atlantis.
Plato gives the names of the first ten kings as; Atlas, Gadeiros (Eumolos), Ampheres, Euaimon, Mneseos, Autochthon, Elasippos, Mestor, Azaes, Diaprepres (Critias 114b).
R. Cedric Leonard is convinced that Manetho’s list of Egyptian god-kings is in fact a list of the first kings of Atlantis and expands on this idea on his website.
Is it possible that it’s a mere coincidence that a tale of a world distant in time and place, consisting of 10 kingdoms, is present in so many ancient texts all over the planet? Storytelling over thousands of years may have changed the details, but it seems likely that there’s a common root – maybe the story of a doomed continent or isle the survivors of which reached the coasts of other, still less developed cultures, influencing the evolution of those peoples.
Some very interesting pieces of this puzzle can be found on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean:  the Americas.

To be continued

written by Lara Lamberti

The Red-Haired Race And The Atlantean Connection

The Western European DNA of Tutankhamun

In 2011, the Swiss laboratory iGENETA reconstructed the DNA of the mummy of  Tutankhamun. They discovered that more than half of the European population shares a common ancestor with the Egyptian child pharaoh. The genetic profile of Tutankhamun belongs to the haplogroup R1b1a2. Haplogroup_R1b
Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA) is the dominant paternal lineage of Western Europe, with especially high incidence in Spain, Portugal, Western France and Ireland and in parts of sub-Saharan Central Africa (for example around Chad and Cameroon). R1b is also present at lower frequencies throughout Eastern Europe, Western Asia, Central Asia, and parts of North Africa, South Asia, and Siberia.
Today, in Egypt this haplogroup is found only in 1.1 per cent of the modern population, explains Roman Scholz who conducted the tests of iGENETA. For the scientists, there were many different possibilities of which DNA groups could have been found. R1b1a2 is being found in 70 per cent of modern Spanish and 60 per cent of modern French men, therefore the scientists think that the first ancestor lived in the Caucasus around 9,500 years ago and shifted towards South and  West during the first migration period in 7000 BC.

King Tut: the child of brother and sister

TutDNATutankhamun was the son of Akhenaten (formerly Amenhotep IV) and one of Akhenaten’s sisters, or perhaps one of his cousins As a prince he was known as Tutankhate. He ascended to the throne in 1333 BC, at the age of nine or ten, taking the throne name Nebkheperur. His wet-nurse was a woman called Maia, known from her tomb at Saqqara.
In 2008, it turned out that Tutankhamun’s parents were brother and sister: a team of researchers investigated the DNA research of Tutankhamun and the mummified remains of other members of his family. The results from the DNA samples finally put to rest questions about Tutankhamun’s lineage, proving that his father was Akhenaten, but that his mother was not one of Akhenaten’s known wives. His mother was one of his father’s five sisters, although it is not known which one. The team was able to establish with a probability of better than 99.99 percent that Amenhotep III was the father of the individual in KV55, who was in turn the father of Tutankhamun. The young king’s mother was found through the DNA testing of a mummy designated as ‘The Younger Lady’ (KV35YL), which was found lying beside Queen Tiye in the alcove of KV35. Her DNA proved that, like his father, she was a child of Amenhotep III and Tiye; thus, Tutankhamun’s parents were brother and sister.
Queen Tiye (Tia, Tyre) had blonde or red hair.

R1b1a2 and the myth of red hair in Egypt

So, was the lineage of pharaohs the same lineage that represents over 50 per cent of modern European men?
800px-Bm-ginger.img_assist_custom-600x450Interestingly, a mysterious race of redheaded mummies is being found all over the globe, including Egypt. Although some people argue that the blonde hair might in some cases be the result of mummification or that the people might have dyed their hair, the coincidence seems almost incredible, considering that the Irish are part of the same haplogroup as the lineage of the pharaohs.

 

Is there anything about redheads in ancient Egypt that has been documented?
redhairedmummye3-126x165Queen Hetop-Heres II, of the Fourth Dynasty, the daughter of Cheops, the builder of the great pyramid, is shown in the colored bas reliefs of her tomb to have been a distinct blonde. Her hair is painted a bright yellow stippled with little red horizontal lines, and her skin is white.
A book that mentions red hair in conjunction with ancient Egypt is James Frazer’s “The Golden Bough.” In it he states that red-haired men were burnt and sacrificed by the Egyptians:
“With regard to the ancient Egyptians we have it on the authority of Manetho that they used to burn red-haired men and scatter their ashes with winnowing fans, and it is highly significant that this barbarous sacrifice was offered by the kings at the grave of Osiris. We may conjecture that the victims represented Osiris himself, who was annually slain, dismembered, and buried in their persons that he might quicken the seed in the earth.”
Later in the book he elaborates on this:
“Again the theory that the pig, originally Osiris himself, afterwards came to be regarded as an embodiment of his enemy Typhon, is supported by the similar relation of red-haired men and red oxen to Typhon. For in regards to the red-haired men who were burned and whose ashes were scattered with winnowing-fans, we have seen fair grounds for believing that originally, like the red-haired puppies killed at Rome in the spring, they were representatives of the corn-spirit himself, that is, of Osiris, and were slain for the express purpose of making the corn turn red or golden.”
Given this information it’s interesting to note that we now know that many pharaohs of ancient Egypt were red-haired, including Ramses II, also known as Ramses the Great. In fact the number of red-haired mummies unearthed seems strikingly disproportionate, especially given the climate in Egypt.
However, what is striking about Ramses II, who was the 3rd pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty, is that his father was Seti I. Seti means “the follower of Seth”, who in Egyptian mythology is in fact the god who murdered Osiris.
Seth was a redhead.

seth

The Atlantean connection

It is documented that red-haired people were known to many of the peoples of the ancient world, but they always constituted a minority in every population. Their appearance in areas like Egypt and Peru surprises us for the climate, but the location in South America surprises us even more for the distance of the alleged source.
Did they really arrive from the Caucasus? Or did they come from Western territories, maybe from a sunken continent?
Plato was certainly not the only one who mentioned the existence of the mythical Atlantis. There’s in fact reason to believe that Plato gathered much of his knowledge as well as the tale of Atlantis from his visits in Egypt.
The Egyptians probably mentioned Atlantis in their writings – the writings about the mysterious land “Amentet”, the Land of the West.

To be continued

Written by Lara Lamberti

 

Sources: Wikipedia, The Myths and History of Red Hair, Burlington News, Science Frontiers.
James Frazer: The Golden Bough. England 1890.
Many thanks to José Da Silveira.
Image credits: finddisneyworld.com, gwydir.demon.co.uk, Eupedia

Plants That Practice Genetic Engineering

In the debate over genetically modified crops, one oft-said word is “unnatural.” People typically use it when describing how scientists move genes from one species into another.

But nature turns out to be its own genetic engineer. Genes have moved from one species of plant to another for millions of years.

Scientists describe a spectacular case this week in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in which ferns acquired a gene for sensing light from a moss-like plant called hornwort. Gaining the gene appears to have enabled the ferns to thrive in shady forests.

The new research builds on a 2004 study on ferns carried out by Kathleen M. Pryer of Duke University and her colleagues. They traced the evolutionary history of ferns by comparing samples of DNA from 45 fern species.

The scientists found that roughly 100 million years ago, ferns exploded into a number of new lineages. Eighty percent of today’s fern species can be traced to that evolutionary burst.

genetics in natureIntriguingly, these successful ferns also evolved a new kind of light-sensing protein. Known as a neochrome, it makes ferns sensitive to dim levels of light. These neochromes may have enabled ferns to thrive on shady forest floors.

In 2011, one of Dr. Pryer’s graduate students, Fay-Wei Li, set out to discover the origin of neochromes. It was possible, he speculated, that an older light sensor that was sensitive to brighter light became adapted to dim forest shade.

To find that ancient gene, Mr. Li examined the neochrome gene, and then he looked at genes for other light sensors in ferns.

But as hard as Mr. Li looked, he couldn’t find a light-sensor gene in ferns that was closely related to the neochrome gene.

“I remember walking to my adviser’s office and telling her my Ph.D. was doomed because I couldn’t figure it out,” Mr. Li said in an interview.

But just as Mr. Li was despairing, a team of scientists at the University of Alberta unveiled a new database of DNA from hundreds of plant species. Mr. Li renewed his search, searching this new cache of genes for a neochrome-like gene.

He found one. To his surprise, however, the gene was not in a fern. Instead, it belonged to a hornwort. These primitive plants, which lack roots or stems, grow in mats on damp banks or on trees. It was a strange connection to find because hornworts are only distantly related to ferns.

“The first thing that came to my mind was that this must be a contamination,” Mr. Li said. A neochrome gene must have somehow been mixed into a sample of hornwort DNA.

The only way to know for sure was to look at more hornwort DNA. Mr. Li obtained hornwort tissue from other scientists and gathered some of his own from a roadside ditch near Duke. In all five species, he found variants of the neochrome gene.

Comparing all the data, Mr. Li and his colleagues came up with an unexpected hypothesis for how ferns got their neochromes. Neochromes did not gradually evolve in ancient ferns. Instead, a single lineage of ferns picked up the neochrome gene from hornworts about 180 million years ago.

Mr. Li speculates that the transfer took place between a hornwort and a fern growing in intimate contact. Once a fern picked up the neochrome gene, his research indicates, it moved into other fern species as well. It’s possible that acquiring this gene enabled ferns to thrive in dark forests.

“The results look to be strong and convincing,” said Jeffrey D. Palmer, an evolutionary biologist at Indiana University.

Dr. Palmer has found evidence for DNA moving between plant species, as have other researchers in recent years. Those previous studies suggested that plants sometimes replaced one of their genes with a version from another species. “It’s like swapping out one part of a machine for another part made in another country,” said Dr. Palmer.

The fern study, on the other hand, shows that plants have also gained functions by acquiring new genes from other plants. And Dr. Palmer expects that Mr. Li’s study will prompt other researchers to hunt for other cases. “We’re bound to find more,” Dr. Palmer said.

Source: New York Times

Image credit: National Geographic

Scientists Finally Admit There Is a Second, Secret DNA Code Which Controls Genes

The fascinating and recent discovery of a new, second DNA code last week further lends credence to what metaphysical scientists have been saying for millennia — the body speaks two different languages.
Since the genetic code was deciphered in the 1960s, researchers have assumed that it was used exclusively to write information about proteins.
But biologists have suspected for years that some kind of epigenetic inheritance occurs at the cellular level. The different kinds of cells in our bodies provide an example. Skin cells and brain cells have different forms and functions, despite having exactly the same DNA.

scientists-finally-admitNO SUCH THING AS JUNK DNA 

The human genome is packed with at least four million gene switches that reside in bits of DNA that once were dismissed as “junk” but it turns out that so-called junk DNA plays critical roles in controlling how cells, organs and other tissues behave. The discovery, considered a major medical and scientific breakthrough, has enormous implications for human health and consciousness because many complex diseases appear to be caused by tiny changes in hundreds of gene switches.

As scientists delved into the “junk” — parts of the DNA that are not actual genes containing instructions for proteins — they discovered a complex system that controls genes. At least 80 percent of this DNA is active and needed. Another 15-17 percent has higher functions scientists are still decoding.

Recent findings in the journal Science may have big implications for how medical experts use the genomes of patients to interpret and diagnose diseases, researchers said.

The genetic code uses a 64-letter alphabet called codons. Dr Stamatoyannopoulos with co-authors were stunned to discover that some codons, which they called duons, can have two meanings. One describes how proteins are made, and the other instructs the cell on how genes are controlled.

The newfound genetic code within deoxyribonucleic acid, the hereditary material that exists in nearly every cell of the body, was written right on top of the DNA code scientists had already cracked.

CONTROLS GENES

Rather than concerning itself with proteins, this one instructs the cells on how genes are controlled.

Its discovery means DNA changes, or mutations that come with age or in response to vibrational changes within the DNA, may be doing more than what scientists previously thought.

“For over 40 years we have assumed that DNA changes affecting the genetic code solely impact how proteins are made,” said lead author John Stamatoyannopoulos, University of Washington associate professor of genome sciences and of medicine.

“Now we know that this basic assumption about reading the human genome missed half of the picture,” he said.

“Many DNA changes that appear to alter protein sequences may actually cause disease by disrupting gene control programs or even both mechanisms simultaneously.”

These two meanings seem to have evolved in concert with each other. The gene control instructions appear to help stabilize certain beneficial features of proteins and how they are made.

The discovery was made as part of the international collaboration of research groups known as the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements Project, or ENCODE.

DNA RESPONDS TO FREQUENCY

The Russian biophysicist and molecular biologist Pjotr Garjajev and his colleagues explored the vibrational behavior of the DNA. The bottom line was: “Living chromosomes function just like solitonic/holographic computers using the endogenous DNA laser radiation.” This means that they managed for example to modulate certain frequency patterns onto a laser ray and with it influenced the DNA frequency and thus the genetic information itself. Since the basic structure of DNA-alkaline pairs and of language (as explained earlier) are of the same structure, no DNA decoding is necessary.

This finally and scientifically explains why affirmations, autogenous training, hypnosis and the like can have such strong effects on humans and their bodies. It is entirely normal and natural for our DNA to react to frequency. While western researchers cut single genes from the DNA strands and insert them elsewhere, the Russians enthusiastically worked on devices that can influence the cellular metabolism through suitable modulated radio and light frequencies and thus repair genetic defects.

Garjajev’s research group succeeded in proving that with this method chromosomes damaged by x-rays for example can be repaired. Garjajev’s research group They even captured information patterns of a particular DNA and transmitted it onto another, thus reprogramming cells to another genome. So they successfully transformed, for example, frog embryos to salamander embryos simply by transmitting the DNA information patterns! This way the entire information was transmitted without any of the side effects or disharmonies encountered when cutting out and re-introducing single genes from the DNA. This represents an unbelievable, world-transforming revolution and sensation! All this by simply applying vibration instead of the archaic cutting-out procedure! This experiment points to the immense power of wave genetics, which obviously has a greater influence on the formation of organisms than the biochemical processes of alkaline sequences.

Sources: 
washington.edu
preventdisease.com
sciencemag.org

Full article: spiritscienceandmetaphysics.com

The fascinating and recent discovery of a new, second DNA code last week further lends credence to what metaphysical scientists have been saying for millennia — the body speaks two different languages.The fascinating and recent discovery of a new, second DNA code last week further lends credence to what metaphysical scientists have been saying for millennia — the body speaks two different languages. – See more at: http://www.spiritscienceandmetaphysics.com/scientists-finally-admit-there-is-a-second-secret-dna-code-which-controls-genes/#sthash.lpzHHwPU.dpuf

The fascinating and recent discovery of a new, second DNA code last week further lends credence to what metaphysical scientists have been saying for millennia — the body speaks two different languages.

– See more at: http://www.spiritscienceandmetaphysics.com/scientists-finally-admit-there-is-a-second-secret-dna-code-which-controls-genes/#sthash.lpzHHwPU.dpuf

Sound And Frequency: The Sound Of Cancer

Converting genetic activity into music may be a way to monitor health.

Image

When set to music, colon cancer sounds kind of eerie. That’s the finding of Gil Alterovitz, a research fellow at Harvard Medical School who is developing a computer program that translates protein and gene expression into music. In his acoustic translation, harmony represents good health, and discord indicates disease.

At any given time in each of our cells, thousands of genes are churning out their molecular products while thousands more lie senescent. The profile of which genes are on versus off is constantly changing–with specific diseases such as cancer, for example.

Searching for a more simplified way to represent the complex library of information inherent in gene expression, Alterovitz decided to represent those changes with music. He hopes that doctors will one day be able to use his music to detect health-related changes in gene expression early via a musical slip into discord, potentially improving a patient’s outcome.

The first step in the gene-to-sound conversion was to pare down multiple measurements to a few fundamental signals, each of which could be represented by a different note. Together, the notes would form a harmonic chord in normal, healthy states and become increasingly out of tune as key physiological signs go awry, signaling disease.

Alterovitz employed mathematical modeling to determine relationships between physiological signals. Much like the various systems in an automobile, many physiological signs work in synchrony to keep a body healthy. “These signals [are] not isolated parts,” says Alterovitz. “Like in a car, one gear is working with other gears to control, for example, power steering. Similarly, there are lots of correlations between physiological variables. If heart rate is higher, other variables will move together in response, and you can simplify that redundancy and information.”

ImageUsing data collected from a study of protein expression in colon cancer, Alterovitz analyzed more than three thousand related proteins involved in the disease. He whittled down the thousands of proteins to four key networks, using various genetic databases that catalog relationships between genes and proteins. He then assigned a note to each network, and together, these notes formed a harmonic chord. He compared the “music” of normal, healthy human data sets to that of the colon-cancer samples and found that, according to his model, colon cancer sounded “inharmonious.”

Researchers may be able to translate other diseases into music by “tuning” the system that Alterovitz has developed. For example, researchers can identify protein networks related to the disorder of interest and then assign notes that, in combination, form inharmonious chords, compared with their healthy counterparts.

He adds that the technique may have applications outside medicine, such as for simplifying information for air-traffic controllers, and in any other industry that requires analysis of large data sets. There is also an opportunity to use protein music purely for music’s sake: a DJ in the Boston area has expressed interest in playing Alterovitz’s “music” in local bars–a potential revenue stream for musician and mathematician alike.

Originally posted by Jennifer Chu in MIT Technology Review

Image credit

Initial DNA Analysis Of Paracas Elongated Skull Released – With Incredible Results

Paracas is a desert peninsula located within the Pisco Province in the Ica Region, on the south coast of Peru.  It is here were Peruvian archaeologist, Julio Tello, made an amazing discovery in 1928 – a massive and elaborate graveyard containing tombs filled with the remains of individuals with the largest elongated skulls found anywhere in the world. These have come to be known as the ‘Paracas skulls’. In total, Tello found more than 300 of these elongated skulls, which are believed to date back around 3,000 years. A DNA analysis has now been conducted on one of the skulls and expert Brien Foerster has released preliminary information regarding these enigmatic skulls.

It is well-known that most cases of skull elongation are the result of cranial deformation, head flattening, or head binding, in which the skull is intentionally deformed by applying force over a long period of time. It is usually achieved by binding the head between two pieces of wood, or binding in cloth. However, while cranial deformation changes the shape of the skull, it does not alter its volume, weight, or other features that are characteristic of a regular human skull.

The Paracas skulls, however, are different.  The cranial volume is up to 25 percent larger and 60 percent heavier than conventional human skulls, meaning they could not have been intentionally deformed through head binding/flattening. They also contain only one parietal plate, rather than two. The fact that the skulls’ features are not the result of cranial deformation means that the cause of the elongation is a mystery, and has been for decades.

Image

An artist’s impression based on a Paracas skull. Photo credit: Marcia Moore / Ciamar Studio

Mr. Juan Navarro, owner and director of the local museum, called the Paracas History Museum, which houses a collection of 35 of the Paracas skulls, allowed the taking of samples from 5 of the skulls. The samples consisted of hair, including roots, a tooth, skull bone and skin, and this process was carefully documented via photos and video. The samples were sent to the late Lloyd Pye, founder of the Starchild Project, who delivered the samples to a geneticist in Texas for DNA testing.

The results are now back, and Brien Foerster, author of more than ten books and an authority on the ancient elongated headed people of South America, has just revealed the preliminary results of the analysis. He writes:

It had mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) with mutations unknown in any human, primate, or animal known so far. But a few fragments I was able to sequence from this sample indicate that if these mutations will hold we are dealing with a new human-like creature, very distant from Homo sapiens, Neanderthals and Denisovans. – See more at: http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-evolution-human-origins/initial-dna-analysis-paracas-elongated-skull-released-incredible#.UvJA_gmoTFM.facebook

“It had mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) with mutations unknown in any human, primate, or animal known so far. But a few fragments I was able to sequence from this sample indicate that if these mutations will hold we are dealing with a new human-like creature, very distant from Homo sapiens, Neanderthals and Denisovans.”

The implications are of cause huge. “I am not sure it will even fit into the known evolutionary tree,” wrote Foerster. He added that if the Paracas individuals were so biologically different, they would not have been able to interbreed with humans.

Foester has not yet released the full details of the DNA analysis. We will update when more details emerge.

Featured Image: An elongated skull found in Paracas

By April Holloway

Source: Ancient Origins