Origins

The series “Origins” opens the new season with several articles from our guest author Harry Bourne.

India, Africa, the Sea & Antiquity : Indonesia

Author: Harry Bourne

What is about to be described in this section is to demonstrate what is written about various groups hypothesised to have reached parts of Africa in antiquity and will mainly follow Oliver Cromwell’s much-quoted comment on the occasion of his portrait being painted. This was that the portrait had to include his warts plus all his other imperfections or never be done.

This wartsn’all approach means the noting of the good and bad about the cited groups. This will largely concentrate on the period between circa (= ca.) 500 BCE and ca. 500 CE. By BCE is meant Before Common Era (= BC) and CE indicates Common Era (= AD).

Indian seafarers are mainly excluded from this section and willbe discussed in Part 2 and onwards. Mention of such as “online in 2015” indicates access in that year.

 

Part 1.2

Indonesia

Borobudur-Sunrise-and-Merapi-Volcano-

Polynesian tongues were seen as belonging to the Austronesian family as does the Fijian language which is the best known of those in Melanesia (= the Black Islands). Reasons put forward as to why there is so little evidence for brown-skinned Polynesians in Melanesia is that they moved so fast through Melanesia or that they were so few in number as to be unable resist absorption.

Colonisation somewhat to the west was traced in Hornell’s (12) famous “Indonesian Influences on East African Culture”. Roger Blench (13) is one of those arguing the same and again adopts the raft-first/canoe-next thinking. Pliny (1st c. CE Roman) refers to seacraft generally attached to ANs on vessels having no oars, no sails, no rudders, etc, carried by ocean currents directly for ca. 3500 miles between ISEA/Indonesia and an unpopulated “Great Island (= Madagascar). The ANs on Madagascar is proven by the Austronesian basis of Malagasy itself the language of all Madagascans.
The AN/Madagascan presence in east Africa seems shown several ways. Having seen traits regarded as integral for all Polynesians except the Maoris, so too were pigs and chickens and yet they too appear not have been brought with the ANs coming to the Great Isle. The Malagasy chickens plus pigs seemingly originate with east Africa.
Musas (= plantains/bananas) are generally seen as originally farmed in ISEA but they reached east Africa. According to Hornell (1934) and others citing Idrissi (12th c. Arab), the seacraft here were Austronesian/Indonesian as east Africans had no ships. Pliny wrote of the arrivals intermarrying with east Africans and Idrissi says the ANs and Africans understood each other’s language. Another Islamic historian is ibn Said/Zaid (13th c. CE).

A passage of his is cited by Hornell (ib.) as marking a mass migration of ANs and/or Malagasy inland towards Great Lakes plus Mountains of the Moon parts of east-central Africa. Hornell regards this as proven by the forms of Great Lakes canoes (esp. those of the Baganda type). More the same comes with the story of ANs shipwrecked in the Bajun Islands (off Somalia) and who passed into east terminology as the Wadiba. It runs as follows, on being rescued, the grateful ANs/Wadiba taught the Bajuni islanders how to construct seacraft called mitepe (plural of mtepe).
If it is correct bananas as a crop originate in southeast Asia, there are varieties unknown in east Africa or on the overland routes across Africa. However, there are some known as phytoliths in pits at Kang (Cameroon) of 1000-500 BCE in west Africa. Something else felt to originate in ISEA is the nasty disease called elephantiasis and it too carries dates on figurines of the Nok Culture (Nigeria) akin those for Kang. The Kang and Nok material is considered as positive proofs of Austronesians in these parts of west Africa.
Hornell (ib.) further says that among the famous carvings at the famous Buddhist at Burobudur (Java, Indonesia) are several of ships. He also cites Diogo de Couto (15th/16th c. Portuguese) described ANs (termed “Javanese” by de Couto) as reaching Cape Town (Sth. Af.). This means the ANs/Javanese ships were capable of surviving the terrors of the seas off Cape Agulhas. This was the case with the reconstruction of a Burobudur ship led described in “From Indonesia to Africa: The Burobudur Ship Expedition” by Philip Beale (14) from the IOR, past this Cape, on to the Atlantic, along Atlantic-facing shores to as far north as Ghana in west Africa.
At about the same time, Hornell (ib) notes Chinese texts record the several Javanese wrecks in presumably the South China Sea en route to China. The oddities of ANs putting themselves plus families on rafts having no oars, no sails and no rudders to drift non-stop across ca. 3500 miles of open ocean towards an unpeopled Madagascar seems absurd. Not to be overlooked is Pliny reporting many deaths on these voyages. On the other hand, this description of west-going ANs was evidently was once the considered opinion of some expert views of their day.
When looking at the migrations from ISEA, genetics applied to those going towards the east lead to the totally contradictory conclusions of the “fast-train” theory plus the equally daft label of thinking tagged as that of the “slow-boat”. These east-going Austronesians were seen to have evolved into the Polynesians in turn settled on even the remotest of Pacific islands. This included New Zealand where the Polynesians are named Maoris. Maori colonies south of New Zealand were shown and may be confirmed by the story of Uiterangi and Antarctica.
However, whether Maori Uiterangi seeing Antarctic ice has any more substance than Irish Brendan seeing Arctic ice must remain moot. Some of the doubts about ANs on Madagascar having no inhabitants were given above and more were said to have colonised parts of east Africa. These particular Austronesians are then said by Hornell (ib.) to have also brought with them the proto-mtepe plus features of certain types of the construction of Great Lakes canoes.

The direct and non-stop nature of these migratory voyages to a Madagascar devoid of people then inland parts of Africa stand to be challenged on many counts. The oddities of what some have believed about the voyages have been outlined. The Polynesians were definitely islanders and Hornell refers to the terms of Polynesians and Tyyans (= Islanders) used by Tamils of Pre-Tamils in south India. At the same time, he removes Tyyans as relevant when saying this is a Tamil word for Sri Lankans not Polynesians.
The lack of Pre-AN inhabitants is fully answered in “Madagascar in the Malayo/Polynesian Myths” by Keith Hall (15) telling us of Pre-AN inhabitants. Messrs. Worthington (16), Huntingford (17), Wicker (18), etc, do so on the matter of Hornell’s attribution of certain traits of Great Lakes canoes to AN/Wadiba sources. Indeed, Worthington’s final words might almost gloss might those of Neville Chittick when putting proto-mitepe to purely African sources.

At one stroke a major strut reinforcing Hornell’s theory of AN/Malagasy migrants in central Africa is removed. This also probably means this theory is as illusory as that of Phoenico/Punics on the far side of Africa. If mitepe were the seacraft carrying ANs from the IOR, past Cape Agulhas on to the Atlantic, their presence in east Africa is interesting. Here they were used to escape ships enforcing British anti-slavery policy. They did so by entering shallow waters where the British ships could not. Bob Holzman (19) shows they were notoriously leaky. We may well wonder if such a leaky and shallow-water ship-type could survive passing ocean to ocean. Manasala’s “Catalan, Y-DNA & the Sayabiga” noting possible ANs in Iberia may tell for overland not sea-borne contact(s).

Borobudur ship

Ship on Borobudur bas relief (Wikipedia)

Follow up: Part 1.3: “Amerindia”. Stay tuned. 

The first part of this series can be found here

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Entran en erupción siete volcánes en pocas horas

Algo está moviéndose.

Unas semanas después de la aparición de una nueva isla después de un terremoto delante de las costas del Pakistan, otra isla nueva aparició hace pocos días delante las costas de la isla Nishino-Shima en Japón después de un evento de orígen volcánica. La erupción fue notada por la marina militar japonesa cuando la lava hirviendo chocó con el agua del mar, levantando una enorme nuvola de vapor y ceniza. Es la primera vez después 40 años que occurre una explosión volcanica en esa zona.

Pero la erupción en Japón solo fue la primera de una cadena de explosiones en todo el planeta que occurrió en pocas horas una después de la otra.

El volcán Colima en Méjico, a casi 13.000 km de distancia del Japón, entró en erupción por la primera vez después de un largo período de relativa calma, enviando vapor y ceniza hasta una altura de 3,5 km en el cielo. Se escuchó el retumbo a una distancia de muchos quilómetros.

Una nube más pequeña fue provocada por la erupción que siguió – la explosión del “Monte Fuego” en Guatemala. La ceniza se cayó encima de las ciudades más cercanas, y las explosiones y la onda de choque se advirtieron en pueblos lejos más de 10 quilómetros.

El volcán Yasur en Vanuato hasta ahora solo ha dado pequeñas explosiones, pero los granjeros se quejan de que la ceniza está cubriendo el suelo de sus campos.

Una erupción masiva occurió con el Etna en Sicilia, Italia. La erupción está ya durando varios días y se está haciendo cada vez más fuerte con el pasar del tiempo. La nube de ceniza muy alta provocó la cancelación de muchos vuelos. La ciudad de Zafferana a los pies del Etna ha suportado algunos daños, y muchos de sus habitantes huyeron en pánico.

El volcán a explotar después fue el Monte Sinabung en Indonesia cuya nube de ceniza muy alta está molestando los habitantes de la zona. El volcán volvió a despertarse en el 2010 por primera vez después de cientos de años de calma. Ayer se evacuaron 6000 personas ya que los científicos temen una erupción importante.

El Monte Merapi, siempre en Indonesia en la isla de Java, empezó a despertarse ayer. Por suerte no hubo daños – los habitantes todavia recuerdan con susto la erupción del 2010 cuando se murieron cientos de personas.

volcanos november 2013Actividad volcánica en el planeta. Estado: 22 de noviembre 2013. Fuente: Humanitarian Early Warning Service.

La erupción casi contemporanea de tantos volcánes en todo el planeta está preocupando mucha gente: algo se mueve. Hay que considerar que varios científicos creen en un enlace entre explosiones solares y movimientos tectónicos. El sol ha sido bastante activo últimamente después de haber estado demasiado tranquilo este máximo solar del ciclo de 11 años.

Se advierte más actividad volcánica en muchos más sitios del planeta. Si esta actividad es especial y para ver si estás en una zona eventualmente a riesgo, puedes consultar la página de este servicio:

Humanitarian Early Warning Service site

Algunas personas creen que todos estos eventos están conectados al principio de una nueva era que habría empezado en la mítica fecha del 21 diciembre del 2012.

En el blog de Mystica habrá un articolo que si ocupará de la cuestión del del sí e por qué esta suposición tiene una base real o está equivocada. El artículo será publicado para el primer aniversario de esa presumida fecha del final de los tiempos.

Siguenos también para el spaceweather en los próximos días.

Para updates y novedades en tiempo real sobre los volcánes clica aquí: USGS volcano watch site.

 Escrito por: Mystica

Image credit: http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap130311.html

Seven Volcanoes In Six Different Countries All Start Erupting Within A Few Hours Of Each Other

Something is moving.

After a few weeks ago a new island appeared off the coast of Pakistan after an earthquake, there’s now a new island in the Pacific after a submarine volcano eruption off Nishino-Shima Island in Japan. It is the first eruption after 40 years. The eruption was noticed by the Japanese Navy when boiling lava went into the sea water and provoked plumes of steam and ash.

But this was only the first of a chain of volcano events around the globe which occurred one after the other within a few hours.

The Colima volcano in Mexico, almost 7000 miles away from Japan, erupted for the first time after a long period of relative calm, blowing a steam and ash cloud two miles up into the sky. The grumbling of the mountain was heard in towns that were miles away.

A smaller ash cloud was provoked by the following eruption of the Fire Mountain in Guatemala. The ash fell over nearby towns, and the explosions and shock waves of the event were felt until towns over 6 miles away.

The Yasur volcano in Vanuato has given only small explosions so far, but the farmers complain that the continuous ash falling on the nearby land might give damage to the farming soil.

A massive eruption has occurred from Mount Etna, in Sicily in Italy. The current eruption has been going on for days and is getting stronger as time moves on. Flights had to be canceled because of high ash clouds. The town of Zafferana at the foothills of the Etna has experienced some damage, and the lava flow is the biggest in years. Many people left their houses in panic.

The next volcano to erupt was Mount Sinabung the high ash cloud of which is giving residents a hard time. The volcano had awakened in 2010 for the first time after hundreds of years. 6000 people were evacuated yesterday as scientists feared a major eruption when the volcano started rumbling.

Mount Merapi on the island of Java, in Indonesia, started awakening yesterday. Luckily, nobody was harmed – people still recover from the loss of hundreds of people during the eruption in 2010.

ImageVolcanic activity worldwide. Status: November 22, 2013. Source: Humanitarian Early Warning Service.

The almost contemporary eruption of so many volcanos around the globe gives way to some concern: something is moving. It has to be pointed out though that some scientists believe that solar flares may trigger earthquakes and movements of the tectonic plates which might give way to volcano eruptions. The sun has been quite active in the last 4 weeks after it had been much too quiet in the 11th year of the actual solar cycle.

More activity is being noticed in many other places worldwide. How special the quantity of volcanic activity is and whether you’re in a potentially hazardous place you can find out at the Humanitarian Early Warning Service site.

Some people believe that all these events are connected to the possibly painful beginning of a new era that would have started on the famous end-time date 21/12/2012. If and why these are truth-based or unfounded assumptions will be laid out in an article we’re going to publish for the first anniversary of the Mayan end date – December 21, 2013.

Stay tuned for space weather news in the next days.

For updates and real-time news of volcano events check the USGS volcano watch site.

Written by: Mystica

Image credit: http://halofanon.wikia.com/wiki/File:1288514330_1440x900_buring-volcano-eruption.jpg