Traces of Neanderthal Virus DNA Found in Modern Human Genomes

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Even though the last common ancestor of Homo sapiens and Neanderthals lived at least 400,000 years ago, traces of our cousins can still be found in our DNA. Fragments of DNA from viruses that affected Neanderthals have been found in modern human genomes according to new research led by Emanuele Marchi from the University of Oxford’s Department of Zoology, which was was published online this month in Current Biology.

Marchi’s results show that humans today have traces of Neanderthal viruses in portions of our DNA that don’t code for protein. DNA from Denisovan bone fragments was compared with genetic samples from Neanderthals and cancer patients today. The results showed that viruses that infected Neanderthals nearly half a million years ago can still be found in our genomes today, and researchers aren’t sure yet what implications that DNA may have for modern diseases like HIV and cancer.

Viral DNA that gets passed down though DNA is known as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). While ERVs make up almost a tenth of our genomes, it is found in regions that we don’t really understand. There are hints that some of these ERVs can team up to cause disease, but it requires a lot more study. Future research will seek to understand ERVs better to determine if it still has pathogenic properties and if those ancient genetic sequences can possibly be used to target treatments.

As genetic sequencing techniques continue to improve, we will continue to understand our evolutionary history more completely. By learning more about what makes us who we are, we will be able to exploit those processes to improve our quality of life while we’re here and will make it better for those who come after.

Found on: ifl science

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Initial DNA Analysis Of Paracas Elongated Skull Released – With Incredible Results

Paracas is a desert peninsula located within the Pisco Province in the Ica Region, on the south coast of Peru.  It is here were Peruvian archaeologist, Julio Tello, made an amazing discovery in 1928 – a massive and elaborate graveyard containing tombs filled with the remains of individuals with the largest elongated skulls found anywhere in the world. These have come to be known as the ‘Paracas skulls’. In total, Tello found more than 300 of these elongated skulls, which are believed to date back around 3,000 years. A DNA analysis has now been conducted on one of the skulls and expert Brien Foerster has released preliminary information regarding these enigmatic skulls.

It is well-known that most cases of skull elongation are the result of cranial deformation, head flattening, or head binding, in which the skull is intentionally deformed by applying force over a long period of time. It is usually achieved by binding the head between two pieces of wood, or binding in cloth. However, while cranial deformation changes the shape of the skull, it does not alter its volume, weight, or other features that are characteristic of a regular human skull.

The Paracas skulls, however, are different.  The cranial volume is up to 25 percent larger and 60 percent heavier than conventional human skulls, meaning they could not have been intentionally deformed through head binding/flattening. They also contain only one parietal plate, rather than two. The fact that the skulls’ features are not the result of cranial deformation means that the cause of the elongation is a mystery, and has been for decades.

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An artist’s impression based on a Paracas skull. Photo credit: Marcia Moore / Ciamar Studio

Mr. Juan Navarro, owner and director of the local museum, called the Paracas History Museum, which houses a collection of 35 of the Paracas skulls, allowed the taking of samples from 5 of the skulls. The samples consisted of hair, including roots, a tooth, skull bone and skin, and this process was carefully documented via photos and video. The samples were sent to the late Lloyd Pye, founder of the Starchild Project, who delivered the samples to a geneticist in Texas for DNA testing.

The results are now back, and Brien Foerster, author of more than ten books and an authority on the ancient elongated headed people of South America, has just revealed the preliminary results of the analysis. He writes:

It had mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) with mutations unknown in any human, primate, or animal known so far. But a few fragments I was able to sequence from this sample indicate that if these mutations will hold we are dealing with a new human-like creature, very distant from Homo sapiens, Neanderthals and Denisovans. – See more at: http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-evolution-human-origins/initial-dna-analysis-paracas-elongated-skull-released-incredible#.UvJA_gmoTFM.facebook

“It had mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) with mutations unknown in any human, primate, or animal known so far. But a few fragments I was able to sequence from this sample indicate that if these mutations will hold we are dealing with a new human-like creature, very distant from Homo sapiens, Neanderthals and Denisovans.”

The implications are of cause huge. “I am not sure it will even fit into the known evolutionary tree,” wrote Foerster. He added that if the Paracas individuals were so biologically different, they would not have been able to interbreed with humans.

Foester has not yet released the full details of the DNA analysis. We will update when more details emerge.

Featured Image: An elongated skull found in Paracas

By April Holloway

Source: Ancient Origins

Archeologists Discover Mysterious Elongated Skulls in France

French archeologists made a surprising discovery during an excavation in Alsace, France, when they uncovered a substantially elongated skull dating back 1,500 years. The finding prompted the archeologists to extend their search over 7.5 acres, which resulted in the discovery of an abundance of artefacts, human and animal remains from Neolithic, Gallic, Gallo-Roman, and Merovingian societies.

The skull appears to have been intentionally elongated through the practice known as cranial deformation, which is unusually associated with ancient Mesoamerican cultures and was practiced extensively in Europe, Africa, Asia, and as noted, South America. Cranial deformation is achieved by distorting the normal growth of a child’s skull by applying force through binding the head between pieces of wood or binding it in a cloth. It is typically carried out on an infant, as the skull is most pliable at this time.

The skull was discovered during excavation of a necropolis containing 18 burials. It was discovered in a tomb belonging to a woman who clearly held a high position in society as she was buried with a rich assortment of treasures including gold pins, a silver mirror, beads of glass and amber, a comb made from deer antler and a number of other goods.

Cranial deformation was frequently associated with the elites of society and affirmed their high status. The important question of course is why? A number of alternative theorists have proposed that the practice was done to mimic a race of poeple who were born with elongated skulls and who were obviously held in high esteem. Brien Foerster has written extensively on the subjetc and has presented complelling evidence relating to skulls that were significantly elongated through genetics and not through cranial deformation. Many questions remain to be answered.

By April Holloway

– See more at: Ancient Origins.net

Humans do NOT come from Earth…

…and sunburn, bad backs and pain during labour prove it, expert claims

  • A U.S. ecologist says conditions such as bad backs and sunburn suggest humans did not evolve alongside other life on Earth
  • In a new book, Dr Ellis Silver says aliens put humans our planet as recently as tens of thousands of years ago
  • He suggests the Earth might be a prison planet, since humans seem to be a naturally violent species and are here until we learn to behave ourselves

A U.S. ecologist has claimed that humans are not from Earth but were put on the planet by aliens tens of thousands of years ago.

Dr Ellis Silver points to a number of physiological features to make his case for why humans did not evolve alongside other life on Earth, in his new book.

They range from humans suffering from bad backs – which he suggests is because we evolved in a world with lower gravity – to getting too easily sunburned and having difficulty giving birth.

Dr Ellis says that while the planet meets humans’ needs for the most part, it does not perhaps serve the species’ interests as well as the aliens who dropped us off imagined.

In his book, HUMANS ARE NOT FROM EARTH: A SCIENTIFIC EVALUATION OF THE EVIDENCE, the ecologist writes the human race has defects that mark it of being ‘not of this world’.

‘Mankind is supposedly the most highly developed species on the planet, yet is surprisingly unsuited and ill-equipped for Earth’s environment: harmed by sunlight, a strong dislike for naturally occurring foods, ridiculously high rates of chronic disease, and more,’ he told Yahoo.

Dr Ellis says that humans might suffer from bad backs because they evolved on a world with lower gravity.

He also says that it is strange that babies’ heads are so large and make it difficult for women to give birth, which can result in fatalities of the mother and infant.

Dr Ellis says that humans might suffer from bad backs

Dr Ellis says that humans might suffer from bad backs (illustrated) because they evolved on a world with lower gravity. He also says that it is strange that babies’ heads are so large and make it difficult for women to give birth, which resulted in fatalities in earlier times

No other native species on this planet has this problem, he says.

He also believes humans are not designed to be as exposed to the sun as they are on Earth, as they cannot sunbathe for more than a week or two – unlike a lizard – and cannot be exposed to the sun every day without problems.

Dr Ellis also claims humans are always ill and this might be because our body clocks have evolved to expects a 25 hour day, as proven by sleep researchers.

‘This is not a modern condition; the same factors can be traced all the way back through mankind’s history on Earth,’ he says.

He suggests that Neanderthals such as homo erectus were crossbred with another species, perhaps from Alpha Centauri, which is the closest star system to our solar system, some 4.37 light years away from the sun.

sunburn

He also believes humans are not designed to be so exposed to the sun as they are on Earth, as they cannot sunbathe for more than a week or two ¿ unlike a lizard ¿ and cannot be exposed to the sun every day

THE ‘EVIDENCE’ TO SUGGEST HUMANS CAME FROM SPACE SO FAR

  • Bad backs suggest humans evolved in a world with lower gravity
  • Sunburn hints humans were not designed to be exposed constantly to the sun
  • The size of babies’ heads present a problem for women when giving birth – difficulty not shared by other species on the planet
  • Humans are always ill, perhaps beacuse their body clocks have evolved to expect a 25 hour day – unlike Earth’s
  • People just feel like they are not at home on our planet

Dr Ellis said many people feel that they don’t belong and feel at home on Earth.

‘This suggests (to me at least) that mankind may have evolved on a different planet, and we may have been brought here as a highly developed species.’

‘One reason for this … is that the Earth might be a prison planet, since we seem to be a naturally violent species and we’re here until we learn to behave ourselves,’ he said.

Dr Ellis said the book is intended to create debate, instead of being a scientific study and hopes it will lead to people getting in touch with him with further suggestions of ‘evidence’.

While other scientists have said some bacteria arrived on Earth from space, Chris McKay, an astrobiologist at NASA, said that to jump to the conclusion that it is alien life is ‘a big jump’.

Alpha Centauri

Was this home? Dr Ellis suggests Neanderthals such as homo erectus were crossbred with another species, perhaps from Alpha Centauri. Star Proxima Centauri is pictured in the star system, which is the closest to our solar system some 4.37 light years away from the sun

Professor Wainwright from the University of Sheffield plans to investigate further, and believes that life is constantly arriving from space that did not originate on Earth.

Dr Ellis says that while his idea is an extreme evolution of that idea, it is intended to be thought-provoking and he claims to have had a largely positive response to it.

He is interested in whether humans came to Earth separately, perhaps by arriving on meteors and comets, before evolving into the species we know today.

‘My thesis proposes that mankind did not evolve from that particular strain of life, but evolved elsewhere and was transported to Earth (as fully evolved Homo sapiens) between 60,000 and 200,000 years ago,’ he says.

Reblogged from: Huffington Post

Image credit for featured image: Jobspapa

The Mysterious Origins Of Man

by George Saunders

Mysterious Origins of Man

Neanderthal Skull

In their search for answers to the great mysteries, scientists gather evidence and develop theories based on what they observe. But sometimes evidence turns up that completely contradicts this. For instance:

Footprints resembling modern man have been found in Texas side by side with dinosaur tracks. Does this mean that man lived millions of years ago at the time of the dinosaurs?

Ancient maps have been discovered that correctly depict the continent of Antarctica centuries before it was discovered. Some claim this is evidence of a technically advanced culture that existed before recorded history began.

History teaches us that in every age, the “experts” were “wrong” in the way they viewed the world. I don’t believe that our experts have all the answers either. There is a high probability that the true history of man on this planet is very different from what is accepted today.

After all, before the 19th century, Western man looked to the Bible for an explanation of his origins. According to the Bible, God created man from the dust of the earth 6,000 years ago. When man dug into the earth for answers, he found evidence that appeared to tell a different story, the story of evolution.

In 1895 Darwin wrote his famous book Origin of the Species. In it he theorized that evolution was a logical sequence of evolutionary steps. He proposed the theory that through natural selection, one species can evolve into another over a long period of time. Man’s first ancestor, according to Darwin, lived 25 million years ago. Man walked upright 5 million years ago, and modern man made his appearance only 100,000 years ago.

Cave Art Cave Art

Sometime artifacts are found that break all the rules, these are called anomalous artifacts. There are hundreds of them. Some evidence exists that man could be far older than previously thought. “Modern” human remains have been found in rock strata 55 million years old.

This bizarre evidence seems to be well documented. Yet the general public and many within the scientific community are unaware of the findings. It is human nature to “filter” things which don’t fit their paradigm (way of thinking). Findings that don’t fit that paradigm are eliminated.

Conventional science states that modern man evolved from a single woman (mitochrondial DNA) in Africa 100,000 years ago, and we arrived in the new world over the Bering land bridge between 9,000 and 10,000 years ago. Yet, numerous human artifacts have been found across North and South America that are so old they threaten to overturn this theory. In 1966, human artifacts were found in South America, in 250,000 year old strata (using two different types of radiometric dating).

Over 100 million years ago, in the limestone bedrock of the Boluxi river in Texas, countless dinosaurs left their footprints to be fossilized forever. The tracks of another creature are also found there. The tracks are clearly that of modern man can be found there also. The trail of the tracks of man and of the dinosaurs lead into a limestone ledge. Digging into the ledge they found human and dinosaur prints 18-inches from one another. The limestone itself dates to the Cretaceous period 135-million years ago. A fossilized human figure (X-rays clearly show bone, joints and ligaments) was found in the same strata.

In South Africa, hundreds of metallic spheres have been found by miners digging in Precambrian strata over 2.5-billion years old. Fine grooves circle some of the spheres. They could not have been formed by an known geological process. The spheres are a complete mystery

According to evolution theory, there is a missing link between man and the apes. A transitional stage, between man and ape. In 1892, Java Man was presented as the missing link. It has since be reclassified as an ape skull and the leg bone of a modern man.

The other missing link is Lucy, the Australopithecus Afarences. Lucy is now considered to be an extinct ape and not a member of the human family tree.

The oldest city in the world used to be ancient Troy/Hisarlic. New dating is changing that. The oldest city is now thought to be the Inca city of Tiajuanaco (sic?). It was built around 12,000 years ago. The temple there is aligned to the cardinal points. The facing stones are perfectly set without mortar. One cannot insert a needle into the cracks the stones are so perfectly cut. Some of the stones weigh over 100 tons.

The solstice markers in the temple (that indicate the points on the horizon where the winter and summer solstice suns rise) seem to be misaligned. Could the ancient people, who constructed the temple so precisely, be so far off on the alignment of the markers? It is highly unlikely.

Computer models showed that the only time the solstice markers would be correctly aligned was 17,000 years ago. That long ago, due to precession, the tilt of the earth was different than it is now. By factoring in the tilt at 17,000 years, the solstice markers line up precisely. This brings up questions about the origins of civilization.

No one really knows who built the Sphinx or the Stonehenge. These are megalithic structures constructed with stone blocks as large as 300 tons (2 diesel locomotives). Both structures are astrologically aligned. There are many compelling similarities between the Ancient Americas and Ancient Egypt.

Both the Americans and Egypt have:

  • Pyramids aligned to the cardinal points.
  • Temples made of large stone blocks with precise mortarless joints.
  • Royal headdress of the same design.
  • Unique style of L shaped stone blocks at corners
  • Same style and shape of metal clamps used as staples to hold stones in place
  • Both practiced mummification.
  • Could this be because both cultures share a common very ancient source?

Another analomous discovery is a map by Arabian Admiral Phiri Rhis (proun. Peery Reese) made in 1582. The map clearly shows features of the earth that nobody should have known in the late 1500’s. Without an accurate timepiece there was no way to figure longitude on a sailing ship. It wasn’t until 1790 that the first accurate marine timepiece was invented.

250-years before this clock was made, Phiri Rhis had drawn a map which shows the coastline of Africa and South America accurate to within a .5 degree of longitude.

On the map he wrote that he had borrowed and copied from 20 earlier ancient maps. Some of the maps dating back to Alexander the Great and older. That is before the time of Christ. So the mystery is where did the source maps come from? Who charted the globe long ages ago, with accuracy that we ourselves can hardly match.

Another mystery of this map is that it shows Antarctica as it looks under 2 miles of covering ice. All of this long before Antarctica was even discovered. We did not have that information until the seismic surveys during the 1958 International Geophysical Year. Whoever drew the original source maps had a level of technology as high as our own. The Antarctic ice cap has existed for millions of years.

It has been said that man has made the climb from stone age to civilization more than once. Every culture has legends and myths of flood and cataclysm, and of the ancient ones who went before and who had secret, lost knowledge.

MORE BURIED EVIDENCE–Skeletons in the Closet

In the 1970’s Mary Leakey found a set of modern footprints in volcanic ash that was dated to 3 millions years old. In 1966, a spear point was found embedded in the jaw of a prehistoric animal’s jaw (dated 60,000 years old.

Most mysterious of all is a find in central Texas. An ancient iron hammer was found embedded in the same strata as dinosaur footprints. part of the wooden handle is still attached part was still embedded in stone. The chemical composition of the iron confounded scientists. The chemical composition was 96.6% iron, 0.74% sulfur, and 2.6% metallic chlorine. The paper I read indicated that this was a very exotic blend.

Part of the wooden handle had coalified, indicating great age, and conditions of high temperature and pressure. The hammer was placed there at the time the rock hardened.

Carved bones, chalk, stones, together with what would appear to be greatly ornamented “coins,” have been brought up from great depths during well-drilling operations.

A strange, imprinted slab was found in a coal mine. The artifact was decorated with diamond-shaped squares with the face of an old man in each ”box.”

In another coal-mine discovery, miners found smooth, polished concrete blocks which formed a solid wall. According to one miner’s testimony. he chipped one block open only to find the standard mixture of sand and cement that makes up most typical building blocks of today.

  • A gold necklace was found embedded in a lump of coal.
  • A metal spike was discovered in a silver mine in Peru.
  • An iron implement was found in a Scottish coal bed. Estimated to be millions of years older than man is believed to have existed.
  • A metal, bell-shaped vessel, inlaid with a silver floral design was blasted out of solid rock near Dorchester, Massachusetts.

Two hypotheses may explain the presence of these perplexing artifacts, these “erratics”: 1) that they were manufactured by an advanced civilization on Earth which, due either to natural or technological catastrophe, was destroyed before our world’s own genesis; 2) that they are vestiges of a highly technological civilization of extraterrestrial origin, which visited this planet millions of years ago, leaving behind various artifacts. The true “reality” can be far more spectacular than what we can conjecture, (inspite of Occam’s Razor).

This present volume shall emphasize the former theory. It will show that erratics do not appear to be the products of a “super civilization” capable of interplanetary flight. These objects are generally of a workmanship which ranges in technical sophistication from what we would judge by our orthodox historical yardstick as comparable to that possessed by the societies of Greece or Rome or to that level achieved by our own twentieth-century technology.

Even if a highly advanced extraterrestrial race might have visited this planet in prehistoric times, it seems unlikely such common, everyday items as nails, necklaces, buckles and vases would have been carried aboard a spacecraft deposited in such widely separated areas; for erratics have been found in North and South America, Great Britain, the whole of Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Mideast.

The question of just what exactly may have happened to these worlds before our own is one that invites a great deal of highly speculative thinking. In spite of the general unpopularity of catastrophism, there does seem to be a number of recently discovered “proofs” of ancient cataclysmic changes in the Earth’s crust which may account for the nearly total disappearance of these prehistoric worlds. Geological evidence indicates that these changes were both sudden and drastic might have completely overwhelmed and destroyed the early inhabitants and their cultures.

Perhaps the most potentially mind-boggling evidence of an advanced prehistoric technology that might have blown its parent-culture away is to be found in those sites which ostensibly bear mute evidence of pre-Genesis nuclear reactions.

Earlier I mentioned the “fused green glass” found deep in the strata of an archaeological dig. The statement that such material had been known previously only at nuclear testing sites (where the sand had melted to form the substance) proved to be an unsettling thought (and a sci-fi hack). Throughout the planet, in the same geologic strata, there unequivocally exists areas which scientists state are strongly suggestive of nuclear reactions. Could it be possible that these sites provide evidence of a prehistoric nuclear war?

“Fused green glass” has been found in such sites as Pierrelatte in Gabon, Africa; the Euphrates Valley; the Sahara Desert; the Gobi Desert; Iraq; the Mojave Desert; Scotland; the Old and Middle Kingdoms of Egypt; and south-central Turkey. At the same time, scientists have found a number of uranium deposits that appear to have been mined or depleted in antiquity.

But before we confront the grim specter of nuclear annihilation in prehistoric times and begin to worry about history repeating itself in some kind of cyclic purgation, let us attempt to meet head on the mystery of mankind’s genesis. It would seem only proper, after all, to resolve its beginnings before dealing with its ending.

 

Original article: http://home.comcast.net/~georgesaunders/ancient.html#anchor_worlds_before