Cassini Watches Mysterious Feature Evolve in Titan Sea


September 29, 2014

NASA’s Cassini spacecraft is monitoring the evolution of a mysterious feature in a large hydrocarbon sea on Saturn’s moon Titan. The feature covers an area of about 100 square miles (260 square kilometers) in Ligeia Mare, one of the largest seas on Titan. It has now been observed twice by Cassini’s radar experiment, but its appearance changed between the two apparitions.

Images of the feature taken during the Cassini flybys are available at:

The mysterious feature, which appears bright in radar images against the dark background of the liquid sea, was first spotted during Cassini’s July 2013 Titan flyby. Previous observations showed no sign of bright features in that part of Ligeia Mare. Scientists were perplexed to find the feature had vanished when they looked again, over several months, with low-resolution radar and Cassini’s infrared imager. This led some team members to suggest it might have been a transient feature. But during Cassini’s flyby on August 21, 2014, the feature was again visible, and its appearance had changed during the 11 months since it was last seen.

Scientists on the radar team are confident that the feature is not an artifact, or flaw, in their data, which would have been one of the simplest explanations. They also do not see evidence that its appearance results from evaporation in the sea, as the overall shoreline of Ligeia Mare has not changed noticeably.

The team has suggested the feature could be surface waves, rising bubbles, floating solids, solids suspended just below the surface, or perhaps something more exotic.

The researchers suspect that the appearance of this feature could be related to changing seasons on Titan, as summer draws near in the moon’s northern hemisphere. Monitoring such changes is a major goal for Cassini’s current extended mission.

“Science loves a mystery, and with this enigmatic feature, we have a thrilling example of ongoing change on Titan,” said Stephen Wall, the deputy team lead of Cassini’s radar team, based at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. “We’re hopeful that we’ll be able to continue watching the changes unfold and gain insights about what’s going on in that alien sea.”

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and ASI, the Italian Space Agency. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The radar instrument was built by JPL and the Italian Space Agency, working with team members from the United States and several European countries.

For more information about Cassini and its mission, visit:

Source: NASA news

NASA Reports Mysterious Signal From Outer Space


NASA has detected a mysterious signal from deep outer space. The signal was detected using the agency’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and ESA’s XMM-Newton. One intriguing possibility is that the X-rays are produced by the decay of sterile neutrinos, a type of particle that has been proposed as a candidate for dark matter.

“We know that the dark matter explanation is a long shot, but the pay-off would be huge if we’re right,” said Esra Bulbul of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass. who led the study. “So we’re going to keep testing this interpretation and see where it takes us.”

While the NASA X-ray mysterious signal holds exciting potential, these results must be confirmed with additional data to rule out other explanations and determine whether it is plausible that dark matter has been observed.

Astronomers think dark matter constitutes 85% of the matter in the Universe, but does not emit or absorb light like “normal” matter such as protons, neutrons and electrons that make up the familiar elements observed in planets, stars, and galaxies. Because of this, scientists must use indirect methods to search for clues about dark matter.

NASA’s latest mysterious signal results from Chandra and XMM-Newton consist of an unidentified X-ray emission line, that is, a spike of intensity at a very specific wavelength of X-ray light. Astronomers detected this emission line in the Perseus galaxy cluster using both Chandra and XMM-Newton. They also found the line in a combined study of 73 other galaxy clusters with XMM-Newton.

The authors suggest this emission line could be a signature from the decay of a “sterile neutrino.” Sterile neutrinos are a hypothetical type of neutrino that is predicted to interact with normal matter only via gravity. Some scientists have proposed that sterile neutrinos may at least partially explain dark matter.

“We have a lot of work to do before we can claim, with any confidence, that we’ve found sterile neutrinos,” said Maxim Markevitch, a co-author from NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “But just the possibility of finding them has us very excited.”

NASA says the mysterious signal has one source of uncertainty. The detection of this emission line is pushing the capabilities of the two observatories in terms of sensitivity. Also, there may be explanations other than sterile neutrinos if this X-ray emission line is deemed to be real.

There are ways that normal matter in the cluster could have produced the line, although the team’s analysis suggested that all of these would involve unlikely changes to our understanding of physical conditions in the galaxy cluster or the details of the atomic physics of extremely hot gases.

The NASA authors of this mysterious signal note that even if the sterile neutrino interpretation is correct, their detection does not necessarily imply that all of dark matter is composed of these particles. As previously reported by NewsOXY, scientists found a newly discovered water planet in 2012. It is located in the right distance from its sun to hold life.


Striking Mars Anomaly: The “Inca City” Is Part Of A Circular Feature


“Inca City” is the informal name given by Mariner 9 scientists in 1972 to a set of intersecting, rectilinear ridges that are located among the layered materials of the south polar region of Mars. Their origin has never been understood; most investigators thought they might be sand dunes, either modern dunes or, more likely, dunes that were buried, hardened, then exhumed. Others considered them to be dikes formed by injection of molten rock (magma) or soft sediment into subsurface cracks that subsequently hardened and then were exposed at the surface by wind erosion.

The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) has provided new information about the “Inca City” ridges, though the camera’s images still do not solve the mystery. The new information comes in the form of a MOC red wide angle context frame taken in mid-southern spring, shown above left and above right. The original Mariner 9 view of the ridges is seen at the center. The MOC image shows that the “Inca City” ridges, located at 82°S, 67°W, are part of a larger circular structure that is about 86 km (53 mi) across. It is possible that this pattern reflects an origin related to an ancient, eroded meteor impact crater that was filled-in, buried, then partially exhumed. In this case, the ridges might be the remains of filled-in fractures in the bedrock into which the crater formed, or filled-in cracks within the material that filled the crater. Or both explanations could be wrong. While the new MOC image shows that “Inca City” has a larger context as part of a circular form, it does not reveal the exact origin of these striking and unusual martian landforms.

Additional versions of the images:

Previous MGS MOC Release about “Inca City”:

Images Credit: NASA/JPL/Malin Space Science Systems

Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

Predictions And Prophecies: VI Spaceweather Facts – The World In Transition

By Susan Rennison

Whilst many voices proclaimed that our world is in transition, the 21st December 2012 was wrongly portrayed as an apocalyptic ‘End of the World’ event. The so-called ‘Mayan Apocalypse’ came and went and nothing appeared to happen, but that is because most have been looking in the wrong direction.

For the last 25 years or so, our world has been facing a major cosmic onslaught and the evidence is now overwhelming that we are facing a New World Age where Space Weather will dominate how humans are able to live on planet Earth.

In 2010, NASA scientists admitted:

“Earth and space are about to come into contact in a way that’s new to human history.”

“We’re on the threshold of a new era in which space weather can be as influential in our daily lives as ordinary terrestrial weather.”


As the Sun Awakens, NASA Keeps a Wary Eye on Space Weather

NASA Science News, 4th June 2010.


Are you aware that NASA and the European Space Agency have been releasing a variety of ominous press releases in recent years concerning Space Weather?

In short, our planet is being blasted by cosmic energies at the same time that Earth’s planetary and solar system defenses are deteriorating with many repercussions that affect the future of mankind.

In March 2010, one commentator stated:

“These discoveries about the outer fringe of our solar system come at a time when new NASA revelations have piled up so fast and so frequently that our paradigm is completely changing again and again without the general public even really being aware.”

“It’s a whole new ball game in space.”

J.S. Holland, NASA Baffled by Giant Space Ribbon,

14th March 2010, Louisville Mojo,


Earth is surrounded by a magnetosphere, a complex magnetic field that acts like a cosmic umbrella, a bubble in space, tens of thousands of miles wide. It was a fairly reliable protective shield from the worst effects of space weather, but things have changed.


In December 2003, a NASA press release titled, Cracks in Earth’s Magnetic Shield stated:

“We’ve discovered that our magnetic shield is drafty, like a house with a window stuck open during a storm. The house deflects most of the storm, but the couch is ruined. Similarly, our magnetic shield takes the brunt of space storms, but some energy slips through its cracks, sometimes enough to cause problems with satellites, radio communication, and power systems.”

Cracks in Earth’s Magnetic Shield,

NASA Science news, Dec. 3, 2003

In September 2008, a NASA press release revealed that our planet is now being flooded by galactic cosmic rays as part of a long term trend that started in the mid 1990s. Shockingly, astronomers openly speculated that the shielding around our solar system might ‘evaporate’.

“The protective shield of energy that surrounds our solar system, has weakened by 25 per cent over the past decade and is now at it lowest level since the space race began 50 years ago.”

Solar Wind Loses Power, Hits 50-year Low

NASA News, 23rd September 2008

Like opening the windows to allow in some fresh air, it seems that Mother Earth is deliberately lowering her shields to allow in more New Energy.

Yes, that is right.

NASA has reported that there are massive breaches where Earth’s cosmic protection affectively disappears on the daylight side. The entire day-side of the magnetosphere is open to the solar wind.


A Giant Breach in Earth’s Magnetic Field, NASA News, 16th December 2008

Sun Often ‘Tears Out A Wall’ In Earth’s Solar Storm Shield,, December 16, 2008,


Earth’s magnetic field no longer fully protects against Space Weather, but neither does the atmosphere! In 2010, the European Space Agency press release, Multiple rifts in Earth’s magnetic shield, made the following claim.

“Fortunately, these fissures don’t expose Earth’s surface to the solar wind; our atmosphere protects us, even when our magnetic field doesn’t.”

Multiple rifts in Earth’s magnetic shield,

European Space Agency, 20 January 2010

Less than three years later, in October 2012, the European Space Agency disclosed that Earth’s cosmic shielding had dramatically deteriorated.

“Earth’s Magnetosphere Is Like A Sieve”

Masson A, Multiple rifts in Earth’s magnetic shield,

Science and Robotic Exploration, Directorate, ESA, The Netherlands, 20 Jan 2010

Earth’s Magnetosphere Behaves Like a Sieve,

Science Daily, 24th October 2012

We are being told in no uncertain terms, Earth is NOT a closed energetic system! Prof. Dr. Elchin Khalilov, Chairman of World Forum – International Congress GEOCATACLYSM-2011, stated:

“…we are at the beginning of the so-called “global energy leap” on our planet and in the Solar system in general. “

Geoscientists have realised that theories that seek to blame an anthropogenic (manmade) cause for climate change are incorrect. In 2011, an international conference was attended by scientists from 30 countries that heard 200 presentations with research papers included in a massive 600 page final report, “NATURAL CATACLYSMS AND GLOBAL PROBLEMS OF THE MODERN CIVILIZATION”, Geocataclysm 2011.

The Honorary Chairman Dr. Elchin Khalilov of the World Forum International Congress “GEOCATACLYSM-2011” states in this paper the following:

“An important role in climate change is attributed to global changes in the parameters of the geomagnetic field and magnetosphere; this refers in particular to the more than 500% increase in the North Magnetic Pole’s drift rate and reduction of the geomagnetic field intensity. Today, the impact of magnetospheric processes on Earth’s climate is considered a proven scientific fact.”

PROCEEDINGS: Natural Cataclysms and Global Problems of the Modern Civilization, WORLD FORUM – INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS September 19-21, 2011 – Istanbul, Turkey

In 2009, a NASA commissioned a report conducted by the National Science Foundation warning that a solar “superstorm” could have serious consequences. Earth’s communications satellites could be knocked out and dangerous power surges in the national grid could destroy transformers and disrupt crucial navigation aids and aircraft avionics.


Severe Space Weather–Social and Economic Impacts,

NASA Science News, 21st January 2009

This report was preceded and followed by many others. Most notable is the Lloyd’s of London 360 Space Weather Report published in November 2010. Lloyds’s is the world’s leading insurance market providing specialist insurance services to businesses in over 200 countries and territories. They state:

“A major space weather event in the approaching solar maximum could cause widespread disruption for unprepared businesses.”

Space Weather, Its impact on Earth & Implications for business

Lloyd’s, November 2010,

In August 2011, NASA released a video depicting what looks like a hurricane in space. Craig DeForest of the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado said:

“The movie sent chills down my spine.”

“It shows a CME swelling into an enormous wall of plasma and then washing over the tiny blue speck of Earth where we live. I felt very small.”


Spacecraft Sees Solar Storm Engulf Earth,

NASA Science News, 18th August 2011

We can expect an extreme solar storm about once every 150 years caused by the Sun ejecting a trillion tonnes of highly-energetic matter travelling at a million miles an hour and then hitting the Earth.


The major solar storm known as The Carrington Event occurred in 1859 so we are already overdue. Yet, this apocalyptic event is impossible to predict more than about 30 minutes before it actually happens. Regardless, world controllers are taking action to prevent a total meltdown of the technological infrastructure of our modern world.


“Electric power is modern society’s cornerstone technology on which virtually all other infrastructures and services depend…. Yet it is particularly vulnerable to bad space weather.”

Severe Space Weather–Social and Economic Impacts,

NASA Science News, 21st January 2009

However, according to NASA scientists, almost nothing is immune from space weather. Here are some of the most important impacts on human activities and welfare.

20131220-124827.jpgSpace weather is affecting our weather. After Superstorm Sandy, there were some major confessions. The well known physicist Michio Kaku declared that the term “global warming” is a misnomer, as we are not experiencing a uniform warming of the Earth. Rather he states,

“It’s global swings. In other words, the weather on steroids. So think of 100-year forest fires, 100-year droughts, 100-year floods, 100-year hurricanes. That could be a new way of life in the future because there’s more energy circulating in the atmosphere.”

Source: Professor Michio Kaku, of the City University of New York.

Is “weather on steroids” the new normal?, CBS News, 2nd November 2012

In January 2013, Prof. Paul Song at UMass Lowell’s Center for Atmospheric Research (CAR) stated:

“Predicting space weather is the next frontier in weather forecasting.”

Study Will Explore How Solar Storms Affect Earth’s Atmosphere,

UMass Lowell, 4th January 2013

Gen_NortonSwartzThe U.S. military have warned that space weather is having an impact on communications. Chief of Staff Gen. Norton Schwartz publicly warned there is too much reliance on GPS. In January 2010, The Air Force Times reported:

“Our operations cannot grind to a halt for a degraded or denied system,”

“Our reliance on information technologies, for example, is very well known.”

Schwartz warns against dependence on GPS,

Air Force Times, 23rd January 2010    

Satellite navigational systems used to be accurate to within 1 metre, but this has drastically changed. In October 2012, it was reported:

“Studies have revealed how space weather can cut the accuracy of GPS by tens of metres.”

Arctic probe into solar storm sat-nav disruption,

BBC News, 10th October 2012

The UK military have already understood the issues and back to basics military exercises without GPS have been undertaken.

MoD Halts GPS Jamming After Safety Complaints,

Eweek Europe, 11th October 2011


Obviously, due to worsening space weather, frequent flyers cannot expect trouble free skies. The warnings have already started informing air travellers to expect a greater radiation hazard in the following decades.

“When space weather is bad, dangerous particles abound. These include protons and ions, known as galactic cosmic rays (GRCs), raining down at near-light speed from space, and similar particles coming in bursts from the sun, called solar energetic particles (SEPs).”

Space Storms to Pose Greater Risk to Flyers and Astronauts

Science Now, 23rd September 2011      

Have you been wondering about all the high profile major computer system failures in recent years? Have you heard about the stock market breakdowns around the world? Massive banking meltdowns and continuous “glitches”, even ATM machines giving away free money? More cosmic rays mean more bit-flips and translates to more software and hardware corruption.

“The space era has so far experienced a time of relatively low cosmic ray activity.”

“We may now be returning to levels typical of past centuries.”

Richard Mewaldt, Caltech


Energetic iron nuclei counted by the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer on NASA’s Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft eveal that cosmic ray levels have jumped 19% above the previous Space Age high. Credit: Richard Mewaldt/Caltech.

Cosmic Rays Hit Space Age High! NASA Science News, 28th September 2009

In the next 40 years, Trans Atlantic flights are expected to encounter twice as much turbulence while enroute due the jet stream is being accelerated and having a destabilising effect that is making air turbulence more likely to form.

“There are 600 transatlantic crossings every day, so a lot of fights will be affected by this.”

Flights to get bumpier as turbulence to double,

The Telegraph, 8th April 2013

Engineers are now looking for new ways to prevent autopilot systems from being corrupted by cosmic rays. The airline industry was badly spooked on October 7, 2008, when a Qantas plane flight QF72 from Singapore to Perth was cruising at 11,000 metres when the autopilot disengaged and the plane suddenly plunged 200 metres in 20 seconds. Three minutes later it plunged a further 120 metres, this time over 16 seconds. 122 crew and passengers, 13 seriously were injured.

Passengers sue Qantas and Airbus over flight scare

ABC News, 19th September 2010


A few atmospheric scientists are concerned. There are extreme flashes of gamma-ray energy that explode in Earth’s atmosphere. This ‘dark’ lightning delivers a million times as much energy as the radiation in visible lightning. If an airline passenger is in the wrong place at the wrong time, they could be exposed to 400 chest X-rays worth of radiation.

It’s not just solar storms, more cosmic rays and radiation that humans are now facing. Astronomers stress that Earth is experiencing an upsurge of space rocks. There are so many asteroid flybys that some compare this to Earth being in a cosmic bowling alley!

We Live in a Cosmic Shooting Gallery,

Universe Today, 13th March 2013

The belief is that it’s a matter of when not if Earth will get hit by an asteroid and this means the inhabitants of Earth need an effective asteroid detection and deflection system.

This was sharply brought to the attention of the general public when asteroid 2012 DA14, passed Earth on Feb. 15, 2013 at a minuscule astronomical distance of just 27,700km (17,200 miles). Some astronomers believe that a piece broke off and entered Earth’s atmosphere. The estimated 55-foot (17 m) 10,000 tonnes meteor exploded over Russia with the force of about 30 nuclear bombs, injuring more than 1,200 people in the city of Chelyabinsk, causing extensive damage to city buildings.


Russian meteor hit atmosphere with force of 30 Hiroshima bombs,

Telegraph, 16th February 2013

The problem of a flood of Near Earth Objects (asteroids, comets and meteoroids) has been apparent for some time, but the seriousness of the threat has been generally hidden from the general public. In May 2007, the website Secrecy News, a publication of the Federation of American Scientists, reported an article headlined, NASA Tries, Fails to Withhold Planetary Defense Report. It read:

“The National Aeronautics and Space Administration earlier this year attempted to block public access to a comprehensive report on planetary defense against asteroids, but the document found its way into the public domain anyway.”

Aftergood S, NASA Tries, Fails to Withhold Planetary Defense Report,

Secrecy News, May 15th, 2007

NASA sought to prevent public disclosure of an important 272 pages Planetary Defense Report that provided the underlying analysis for NASA’s recommended conclusions strategy recommendation. An abbreviated version (28 pages, pdf) was provided to Congress and the public in March 2007, recommending against the initiation of a new planetary defense program.

Then, in June 2009, in keeping with the climate of secrecy, it was reported that the U.S. military had withdrawn their fireball data from the astronomers. The news was delivered to the space community as follows:

“For 15 years, scientists have benefited from data gleaned by U.S. classified satellites of natural fireball events in Earth’s atmosphere – but no longer. A recent U.S. military policy decision now explicitly states that observations by hush-hush government spacecraft of incoming bolides and fireballs are classified secret and are not to be released, has learned.”

David L, Military Hush-Up: Incoming Space Rocks Now Classified,, 10 June 2009

nasa_admin_boldenSo, it is no surprise that when NASA administrator Charles Bolden Jr. at a House Committee hearing was asked in March 2013 what America would do if a meteor similar to the one that hit in Russia on February 15th 2013 was found to be on a path toward New York City, with impact three weeks away. His response was the only thing we could do is “Pray”.

NASA’s advice for near-term meteor strike: “Pray”,

CBS News, 19th March 2013

Have you read that oceans, lakes and rivers are occasionally turning blood red all over the planet? Have you heard what sounds like ‘trumpets’ in the heavens? Should humanity be paying attention to Biblical Prophecy and esoteric astrotheology?

Yangtze_red_river_waterThe river that DID run red: Residents of Chinese city left baffled after Yangtze turns scarlet,

Daily Mail, 7th September 2012

In December 2012, Reuters reported the results of a poll by the Public Religion Research Institute in partnership with the Religion News Service found a considerable proportion of U.S. citizens think we are in the “End Times”. 36% thought the severity of recent natural disasters such as Superstorm Sandy is evidence the world is coming to an end, as predicted by the Bible, while more than 63% blame climate change.

Nearly four in 10 U.S. residents blame weather on “end

Yahoo News, 13th December 2012


Interestingly, in 2008, it is known that The Obama Administration in the White House approached metaphysical leaders in the United States about “planetary challenges”. Specifically they asked:

“…to communicate about what is transpiring on the planet, and how we can change the course of the unprecedented events that are challenging this planet.”

Regretfully this small group of New Age leaders had no idea why they were being asked, but it is now clear they were being tested. Recent revelations prove that major religious institutions, metaphysical and esoteric groups have been tracking the date 2012 as the end/start of a major astronomical cycle.

Obama Administration Requests Info on Planetary Challenges, Intent, 5th March 2009


“Cortez and Montezuma at Mexican Temple” Scene from the frieze decorating the United States Capitol Rotunda. Painted sometime between 1878 and 1880 by Constantino Brumidi. It features the Aztec Calendar Stone and other important Masonic symbolism.

This new cosmic dispensation was expected by those who have preserved ancient knowledge about the existence of long astronomical cycles. Strong evidence suggests an assortment of religious, metaphysical, esoteric and indigenous groups were using calendars derived from ancient knowledge that were carefully preserved to keep track of the time when we could expect a major period of cosmic transition and possible conflagration.

T. Horn & C. Putnam, Apollyon Rising 2012: The Lost Symbol Found & the Final Mystery of the Great Seal Revealed,

Defender Publishing, (2012)

T. Horn & C. Putnam, Petrus Romanus – The Final Pope is Here,

Defender Publishing (2013)

According to scientists, there is a belief that planet Earth is being swamped by a new stream of dark matter. Certainly, there is new evidence that the spacetime around Earth is changing and the European Space Agency have a new mission to determine what is going on.


Hidefumi Tomita, Detector development for direction-sensitive dark matter research,

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2011,

Probing The Flyby Anomaly With The Future STE-QUEST Mission

Technology Review, 31st October 2012

The realm of the quantum is the fundamental source of spiritual energies, so spiritual leaders in theory should understand exactly what is going on. The issue of planetary challenges is because the violent delivery mechanism is causing problems for our modern technological world!

Finally, more and more scientists are admitting that evolution is driven by changes in the environment and that organisms will intelligently engineer their own DNA and control their own evolution in response to environmental stress. This means that natural selection over hundreds of thousands of years has been superseded by evidence that genetic changes can appear quickly in a matter of 15 generations and that translates to decades.

If you want to know more, you can download the report:

 Planetary Challenges & Spiritual Evolution

Summary For Citizens of Planet Earth

See slide show of this article at

Reblogged from:

Image credits: NASA,,

Predictions And Prophecies: IV Fimbulwinter – The End Of All Life On Earth

“Is a mini ice age on the way?” asks Daily Mail and states further: “Scientists warn the Sun has ‘gone to sleep’ and say it could cause temperatures to plunge”.
–  2013 was due to be year of the ‘solar maximum’
–  Researchers say solar activity is at a fraction of what they expect
–  Conditions ‘very similar’ a time in 1645 when a mini ice age hit 

landscape_antarcticaWe’ve been prepared for Global Warming, but what happens if an ice age hits us, unprepared? Billions of dollars have been spent for the prevention of a major catastrophe provoked by Global Warming. But while we were preparing for heat, temperatures stopped rising already in 1996. Even more: temperatures have become colder in several places on Earth. The truth about this didn’t become public until a few years ago. Those who want to keep standing by Global Warming sustain that Global Cooling is actually provoked by Global Warming.

There is a lot to say about this. The team of Mystica has been researching this subject for several years and had to pass through a jungle of controversial documents and information, hidden agendas, the biggest business in modern times, blatant lies and ugly old men fighting for power. The results of this investigation will be exposed in a series of articles when the time has come.

Some people think that the prediction of a (mini) ice age with its devastating consequences for the nature of the planet matches the end-time-predictions of the ancient northern people.

Ragnarök is the Norse Apocalypse, allegedly starting on February 22nd, 2014. The end-time events – to come at the end of this episode – are preceded by a harsh winter that puts an end to all life on Earth, called Fimbulvetr (“Fimbulwinter”).  The northern hemisphere has seen very harsh winters in the last four years, topped by the temperatures in North America during the current winter 2013/2014. Some people think that Earth is going towards a major cooling resulting in an ice age or mini ice age.

Fimbulvetr comes from Old Norse, meaning “awful, great winter”. The prefix “fimbul” means “the great/big” so the correct interpretation of the word is “the great winter”.

However, the Fimbulwinter means not one, but three winters: Fimbulwinter is three successive winters where snow comes in from all directions, without any intervening summer. During this time, there will be innumerable wars and ties of blood will no longer be respected: the next-of-kin will lie together and brothers will kill brothers.

The event is described primarily in the Poetic Edda. In the poem Vafþrúðnismál, Odin poses the question to Vafþrúðnir as to who of mankind will survive the Fimbulwinter. Vafþrúðnir responds that Líf and Lífþrasir will survive and that they will live in the forest of Hoddmímis holt.

Harsh winter and low temperatures are the consequence of low sun activity. The activity of our sun has not been as low in over 100 years, scientist have warned.

Has the Sun gone to sleep?

sun1Sunspot numbers are well below their values from 2011, and strong solar flares have been infrequent, as this image shows – despite Nasa forecasting major solar storms

The Solar Circle

Conventional wisdom holds that solar activity swings back and forth like a simple pendulum. At one end of the cycle, there is a quiet time with few sunspots and flares. At the other end, solar max brings high sunspot numbers and frequent solar storms. It’s a regular rhythm that repeats every 11 years.

Reality is more complicated.

Astronomers have been counting sunspots for centuries, and they have seen that the solar cycle is not perfectly regular.

A Situation Similar to the Maunder Minimum

The conditions we encounter right now with the sun are eerily similar to those before the Maunder Minimum, a time in 1645 when a mini ice age hit, freezing London’s River Thames, scientists say.

Researchers believe the solar lull could cause major changes, and say there is a 20% chance it could lead to ‘major changes’ in temperatures.

Whatever measure you use, solar peaks are coming down,’ Richard Harrison of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire told the BBC.

‘I’ve been a solar physicist for 30 years, and I’ve never seen anything like this.’

He says the phenomenon could lead to colder winters similar to those during the Maunder Minimum.

‘There were cold winters, almost a mini ice age.

‘You had a period when the River Thames froze.’

Lucie Green of UCL believes that things could be different this time due to human activity.

‘We have 400 years of observations, and it is in a very similar to phase as it was in the runup to the Maunder Minimum.

‘The world we live in today is very different, human activity may counteract this – it is difficult to say what the consequences are.’

Maunder MinimumThe Frozen Thames, 1677 – an oil painting by Abraham Hondius shows the old London Bridge during the Maunder Minimum

Mike Lockwood University of Reading says that the lower temperatures could affect the global jetstream, causing weather systems to collapse.

“We estimate within 40 years there a 10-20% probability we will be back in Maunder Minimum territory,” he said.


Last year Nasa warned “something unexpected’ is happening on the Sun. This year was supposed to be the year of ‘solar maximum,’ the peak of the 11-year sunspot cycle. But  solar activity is relatively low.

“Sunspot numbers are well below their values from 2011, and strong solar flares have been infrequent,” the space agency says.

The image of the sun above shows the Earth-facing surface of the Sun on February 28, 2013, as observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory. It observed just a few small sunspots on an otherwise clean face, which is usually riddled with many spots during peak solar activity. Experts have been baffled by the apparent lack of activity – with many wondering if NASA simply got it wrong. However, Solar physicist Dean Pesnell of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center believes he has a different explanation.

‘This is solar maximum,” he says. “But it looks different from what we expected because it is double-peaked. The last two solar maxima, around 1989 and 2001, had not one but two peaks.”

Solar activity went up, dipped, then rose again, performing a mini-cycle that lasted about two years, he said.

The same thing could be happening now, as sunspot counts jumped in 2011 and dipped in 2012, he believes. Pesnell expects them to rebound in 2013:

“‘I am comfortable in saying that another peak will happen in 2013 and possibly last into 2014.”

He spotted a similarity between Solar Cycle 24 and Solar Cycle 14, which had a double-peak during the first decade of the 20th century. If the two cycles are twins, ‘it would mean one peak in late 2013 and another in 2015’.

For many people, these scientific facts seem to match the Ragnarök prophecy and the three winters of the Fimbulvetr and have already been provoking lots of speculations. However, scientists think that the Fimbulwinter mythology might be related to the extreme weather events of 535–536 which resulted in a notable drop in temperature across northern Europe. There have also been several popular ideas about whether or not this particular piece of mythology has a connection to the climate change that occurred in the Nordic countries at the end of the Nordic Bronze Age dating from about 650 BC. Before this climate change, the Nordic countries were considerably warmer.

But the legend and the latest discoveries concerning our Sun, as much as many other elements, raise an interesting question: are there natural cycles in our solar system that bring a recurrent drastic climate change to the planet? And are so many legends and tales of ancient peoples eventually remaining of the events provoked by such cycles? Were the consequences so devastating that entire landscapes were reshaped?

If we accept the idea of recurrent climate changes on Earth with catastrophic effects, we could approach lots of archeological and anthropological mysteries from a different side and maybe learn from the past to save our own lives.


Daily Mail







Breaking News: Meteors in UK / Holland / Belgium / Germany 18JAN2014

UK / Holland /  Belgium / Germany: Meteors are being seen all over Europe

ImageUK / Holland /  Belgium / Germany Fireball Meteor/s Approx. 2020 GMT 18JAN2014
v3 c2014 LunarMeteoriteHunter / Google Earth

43 reports

Initial Meteor Sighting Reports

  • 18JAN2014 Jim Almere, The Netherlands 21:32:00  GMTplus1 2 top to bottom Quick drop > rainbow trail > bright flash exceptionally bright black trail in the sky after 3 minutes white impressive
  • 18JAN2014 Tim North Shields UK 20.18 approx 2 secs Facing E, Track NW to SE over sea to right of moon Barium Green, small amount white Slightly brighter than the moon No just one discontinuity Have CCTV video available
  • 18JAN2014 James Cambuslang, Lanarkshire, UK 2000 UTC approx 2 sec0nds Seen to the East of Location, falling to earth in southerly direction green trail twice as bright a sirius none none
  • 18JAN2014 Marian jones Morecambe England Approx 20.20 3 secs North to South facing east Blue/turquoise/silver Moon Trailing colours Spectacular
  • 18JAN2014 Tim North Shields 20.18 approx 2 secs Observing E, track NW to SE over North Sea barium green brighter than moon No Have video from CCTV camera
  • 18JAN2014 Julie St neots cambs uk 20. 15 approx 5 sec Left to right Green then orange Moon ? No None
  • 18JAN2014 Steve Marsters Morton, Bourne, England 20:40:00 3 seconds Facing N Meteor went N west to east Green venus no looked like a firework but definitely wasnt
  • 18JAN2014 kleah Hirst SCUNTHORPE 20.15 2 N-E green/blue venus ball of colour with a tail the tail colour disapeared as fast as the bakk
  • 18JAN2014 Kevin Kane Hamilton, South Lanarkshire, Scotland, United Kingdom. UK 20.20 hours Approximately 4 seconds I was facing East. Watching very clear full moon. Object travelled from generally from West to East. Just under the moon. Bright green. Almost Fluorescent Green. Very very bright No but left trail. One of the most exciting natural phenomena I have ever seen. I was absolutely amazed. So excited. I am a retired cop so I thought I had just about seen everything.. I was actually excited. Hope this helps….Kevin
  • 18JAN2014 Andrew Dunham on trent, Nottinghamshire, U.K. 20.40 GMT PM 2 sec Started high and went out low, W-E, right to left, I was Facing north Green / Blue Very bright, like the sun Yes A friend commented they saw it and they live 30 mile away, and commented on the colour, being almost turquoise.
  • 18JAN2014 hannah lincoln uk 8.30 pm 3 secs w to e facing north green tail sun no it was big
  • 18JAN2014 Clare Seymour Oakham, Rutland, Uk 20:20/GMT 1 sec NW-NE,left to right, facing north Green Bright as moon None Single bright green streak, as bright as a firework
  • 18JAN2014 David Stockport, Cheshire, UK 20:16:00 2/3/2014 Left to right White at front, then green and blue Brighter than moon No Saturday 18 January 2014 at approx. 20:16 – 20:18. We were driving from SK8 (Cheadle) to SK2 (Davenport/Stockport) on Adswood Road(just near the railway bridge/Jewsons). It travelled from left to right coming down from the sky at angle of between 3 and 4 pm on a clock. It was extremely bright white at the large forward end of the item and was then blue and green towards the tail end. We cannot remember what colour was nearest the white, whether it was blue or green. The green was almost emerald in colour and the blue fiercely bright
  • 18JAN2014 Richard griffin Mansfield, uk 20.2 2 seconds Ne-e Green/white Same as moon No Saw a meteorite for the first time travelling east to west of similar brightness almost exactly 12 months to the date of this sighting
  • 18JAN2014 Mike Old Dalby, Leicestershire, UK 20.20 UK 3 – 4 secs N-S Left to right 45 degrees downward. Facing East. Bright white/green Brighter than the moon, appeared similar to a firework None I have never seen such a bright meteor before and probably never will again
  • 18JAN2014 Gordon Newark notts 2020 3 secs N-E left to right Green Moon Yes Artwork
  • 18JAN2014 pauline hull, yorkshire england 20.18 3 left to right aqua blue fuzzy moon no big blue fuzzy ball wiv a long tail
  • 18JAN2014 tim pettinger sheffield 20:20pm 5 seconds north trailing sparky tail on a downward tangle rather than horizontal moon short sparky tail looking out a window from manor park sheffield out towards rotheram/tinsly direction.

Source: lunarmeteorhunters

All 43 reports about meteor showers can be seen here

Report your meteor sightings please-

Mystery Rock ‘Appears’ in Front of Mars Rover

ImageA comparison of two raw Pancam photographs from sols 3528 and 3540 of Opportunity’s mission (a sol is a Martian day). Notice the “jelly doughnut”-sized rock in the center of the photograph to the right. Minor adjustments for brightness and contrast.

 After a decade of exploring the Martian surface, the scientists overseeing veteran rover Opportunity thought they’d seen it all. That was until a rock mysteriously “appeared” a few feet in front of the six wheeled rover a few days ago.

News of the errant rock was announced by NASA Mars Exploration Rover lead scientist Steve Squyres of Cornell University at a special NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory “10 years of roving Mars” event at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Pasadena, Calif., on Thursday night. The science star-studded public event was held in celebration of the decade since twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity landed on the Red Planet in January 2004.

While chronicling the scientific discoveries made by both rovers over the years, Squyres discussed the recent finding of suspected gypsum near the rim of Endeavour Crater — a region of Meridiani Planum that Opportunity has been studying since 2011 — and the discovery of clays that likely formed in a pH-neutral wet environment in Mars past. While these discoveries have been nothing short of groundbreaking, Squyres shared the Mars rover’s team’s excitement for that one strange rock, exclaiming: “Mars keeps throwing new stuff at us!”


In a comparison of recent photographs captured by the rover’s panoramic camera, or Pancam, on sol 3528 of the mission, only bare bedrock can be seen. But on sol 3540, a fist-sized rock had appeared (raw Pancam images can be found in the mission archive). MER scientists promptly nicknamed the object “Pinnacle Island.”

“It’s about the size of a jelly doughnut,” Squyres told Discovery News. “It was a total surprise, we were like ‘wait a second, that wasn’t there before, it can’t be right. Oh my god! It wasn’t there before!’ We were absolutely startled.”

But the rover didn’t roll over that area, so where did Pinnacle Island come from?

Only two options have so far been identified as the rock’s source: 1) The rover either “flipped” the object as it maneuvered or, 2) it landed there, right in front of the rover, after a nearby meteorite impact event. The impact ejecta theory, however, is the least likely of the two.

“So my best guess for this rock … is that it’s something that was nearby,” said Squyres. “I must stress that I’m guessing now, but I think it happened when the rover did a turn in place a meter or two from where this rock now lies.”

Opportunity’s front right steering actuator has stopped working, so Squyres identified that as the possible culprit behind the whole mystery.

Each wheel on the rover has its own actuator. Should an actuator jam or otherwise fail, the robot’s mobility can suffer. In the case of this wheel, it can no longer turn left or right. “So if you do a turn in place on bedrock,” continued Squyres, “as you turn that wheel across the rock, it’s gonna kinda ‘chatter.’” This jittery motion across the bedrock may have propelled the rock out of place, “tiddlywinking” the object from its location and flipping it a few feet away from the rover.

NEWS: Opportunity Finds More Hints of Mars Habitability

Never missing a scientific opportunity, Opportunity scientists hope to study the bright rock. “It obligingly turned upside down, so we’re seeing a side that hasn’t seen the Martian atmosphere in billions of years and there it is for us to investigate. It’s just a stroke of luck,” he said.

“You think of Mars as being a very static place and I don’t think there’s a smoking hole nearby so it’s not a bit of crater ejecta, I think it’s something that we did … we flung it.”

Although this is the leading theory behind the case of the random rock, Squyres pointed out that the investigation is still under way and it will be a few days before his team can definitively say where Pinnacle Island came from.

Opportunity has outlived its 3-month primary mission by ten years, notching up nearly 23 miles on the odometer so far. Sister rover Spirit succumbed to the Martian elements in 2009 when it became stuck in a sand trap in Gusev Crater. Spirit’s mission was declared lost when it stopped transmitting in March 2010, likely drained of energy. Although Spirit had the rougher time on Mars and was the first to die, it was also a huge success, aiding our understanding of of Mars’ geological history and outliving its warranty by 5 years. But now it’s just Opportunity and Mars’ new arrival Curiosity that soldier on to reveal more than we ever dreamed about our neighboring Red Planet.

As the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory rover drivers, scientists and engineers recounted stories of their beloved robots on Thursday, it became very clear that they aren’t just machines of discovery, they are family.

Source: Discovery News

Unseen Exoplanet Predicted, Now Confirmed

Perturbations in the orbit of Uranus let astronomers discover the planet Neptune in 1846. Now this same technique has been used to find a planet 1,000 light-years away.

ImageSee full size | Artist impression of the Kepler-88 system. Credit: Alexandre Santerne (CAUP)/ESO/Serge Brunier

For the first time, astronomers have confirmed an unseen planet in a distant solar system thanks to the gravitational perturbation it was causing on another planet in that system. A perturbation is just a deviation in the movement of a planet, caused by the pull of gravity from an outside influence. Perturbations in the orbit of Uranus let astronomers discover the planet Neptune in 1846. Neptune is in our solar system, relatively nearby. The Kepler-88 system is over 1,000 light-years away. This is the first time astronomers have confirmed the presence of an exoplanet – planet orbiting a star besides our sun – using this technique. The newly confirmed world is now called Kepler-88 c. It was causing minor shifts in the orbit of its brother world, Kepler-88 b.

Astronomer Alexandre Santerne of the Centre for Astrophysics at the University of Porto in Portugal led the work. He and his team used the SOPHIE spectrograph at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence in France to measure the mass of Kepler-88 c, thus confirming that it exists.

Astronomers learned over a year ago that the orbit of Kepler-88 b is strongly perturbed. In other words, transits of this planet in front of the face of its star did not come exactly when expected. Rodrigo Diaz, a researcher working at the Geneva Observatory, said in a press release issued today (December 17, 2013):

This system presents such strong interactions that it has earned the nickname of the king of transit variations.

David Nesvorny of the Southwest Research Institute had previously performed a careful analysis of the dynamical interaction between the known planet and the hypothetical, unseen planet. This work helped to put tight constraints on masses of both planets, thus suggesting a location for the unseen planet.

ImageSee full size | Picture of the dome of the 1.93-m telescope of Haute-Provence Observatory (France) which hosts the SOPHIE spectrograph, with the Kepler field-of-view. Credit: Alexandre Santerne (CAUP)

Alexandre Santerne’s team independently measured the mass of Kepler-88 c the SOPHIE velocimeter. He said:

SOPHIE is a French instrument capable of measuring the velocity of stars with a precision equivalent to the speed of a bicycle. It has been used to characterize nearly 20 Kepler planets so far.

The inferred mass for the unseen planet is in agreement with the value that was predicted, making this the first time that the mass of an unseen exoplanet – inferred based on transit timing variations – is independently confirmed by another technique.

The work piggybacks on the amazing Kepler space observatory – launched in 2009 – which had the goal of searching for periodic transits in hundreds of thousands of stars. Kepler’s activities have been on hold since May 2013, when the telescope’s positioning system failed. But the transits it observed are what enabled the space observatory to discover thousands planets so far. According to the press release:

More than 3,500 of such periodic transits were found during the 4 years of the mission. However, not all the planets located in the Kepler field-of-view are transiting their host star. Indeed, if their orbital plane is slightly misaligned (only a few degrees is enough) with the line of sight from the Earth, the planet is not transiting and, thus, is “unseen” from the Kepler spacecraft.

Planets that share the same host star gravitationally interact with each other. This interaction between planets can cause perturbations in the predicted times of transit of planets in multi-planetary systems.

Ultimately, these perturbations in the predicted times of transit may prove to be another powerful technique for finding and confirming planets in distant solar systems.

Bottom line: In 1846, Neptune was found because it was altering the orbit of its neighboring world, Uranus. Astronomers have now used the same technique to find a planet in a distant solar system.

Via Centro de Astrofisica

NASA’s Cassini Spacecraft Obtains Best Views of Saturn Hexagon

This colorful view from NASA’s Cassini mission is the highest-resolution view of the unique six-sided jet stream at Saturn’s north pole known as “the hexagon.” This movie, made from images obtained by Cassini’s imaging cameras, is the first to show the hexagon in color filters, and the first movie to show a complete view from the north pole down to about 70 degrees north latitude. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SSI/Hampton University
› Full image and caption
December 04, 2013

NASA’s Cassini spacecraft has obtained the highest-resolution movie yet of a unique six-sided jet stream, known as the hexagon, around Saturn’s north pole.

This is the first hexagon movie of its kind, using color filters, and the first to show a complete view of the top of Saturn down to about 70 degrees latitude. Spanning about 20,000 miles (30,000 kilometers) across, the hexagon is a wavy jet stream of 200-mile-per-hour winds (about 322 kilometers per hour) with a massive, rotating storm at the center. There is no weather feature exactly, consistently like this anywhere else in the solar system.

“The hexagon is just a current of air, and weather features out there that share similarities to this are notoriously turbulent and unstable,” said Andrew Ingersoll, a Cassini imaging team member at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. “A hurricane on Earth typically lasts a week, but this has been here for decades — and who knows — maybe centuries.”

Weather patterns on Earth are interrupted when they encounter friction from landforms or ice caps. Scientists suspect the stability of the hexagon has something to do with the lack of solid landforms on Saturn, which is essentially a giant ball of gas.

Better views of the hexagon are available now because the sun began to illuminate its interior in late 2012. Cassini captured images of the hexagon over a 10-hour time span with high-resolution cameras, giving scientists a good look at the motion of cloud structures within.

They saw the storm around the pole, as well as small vortices rotating in the opposite direction of the hexagon. Some of the vortices are swept along with the jet stream as if on a racetrack. The largest of these vortices spans about 2,200 miles (3,500 kilometers), or about twice the size of the largest hurricane recorded on Earth.

Scientists analyzed these images in false color, a rendering method that makes it easier to distinguish differences among the types of particles suspended in the atmosphere — relatively small particles that make up haze — inside and outside the hexagon.

“Inside the hexagon, there are fewer large haze particles and a concentration of small haze particles, while outside the hexagon, the opposite is true,” said Kunio Sayanagi, a Cassini imaging team associate at Hampton University in Virginia. “The hexagonal jet stream is acting like a barrier, which results in something like Earth’s Antarctic ozone hole.”

The Antarctic ozone hole forms within a region enclosed by a jet stream with similarities to the hexagon. Wintertime conditions enable ozone-destroying chemical processes to occur, and the jet stream prevents a resupply of ozone from the outside. At Saturn, large aerosols cannot cross into the hexagonal jet stream from outside, and large aerosol particles are created when sunlight shines on the atmosphere. Only recently, with the start of Saturn’s northern spring in August 2009, did sunlight begin bathing the planet’s northern hemisphere.

“As we approach Saturn’s summer solstice in 2017, lighting conditions over its north pole will improve, and we are excited to track the changes that occur both inside and outside the hexagon boundary,” said Scott Edgington, Cassini deputy project scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif.

A black-and-white version of the imaging camera movie and movies obtained by Cassini’s visual and infrared mapping spectrometer are also tools Cassini scientists can use to look at wind speeds and the mini-storms inside the jet stream.

Cassini launched in 1997 and arrived at Saturn on July 1, 2004. Its mission is scheduled to end in September 2017. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. JPL manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo.

A Google+ Hangout to discuss these results and other Cassini images will take place today at 12:30 p.m. PST (3:30 p.m. EST): .

The event will be broadcast live on NASA Television and streamed on the agency’s website. For information on NASA TV, visit: .

The event will also be streamed live on Ustream with a moderated chat available at: .

Questions can be asked on the Google Hangout event page, in the chat box on the Ustream site and via Twitter using the hashtag #askCassini.

More information about Cassini is available at: and .

Jia-Rui C. Cook 818-354-0850
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

Dwayne Brown 202-358-1726
NASA Headquarters, Washington

An Unknown Energy Source Powers Massive X-Ray Superbursts Near The Neutron Stars’ Surface

There is “something”, an unknown energy source of titanic magnitude in the outermost layers of accreting neutron star surfaces.

This unknown force powers massive X-ray superbursts near the surface of neutron stars, of which interiors still largely remain a mystery.

“Neutron stars are really the most extreme physics lab we have to observe,” said Tod Strohmayer of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt. “If you can study neutron stars, you can understand the physics of very dense matter” down to the most exotic particles.”

A small, dense object only 12 miles in diameter is responsible for this beautiful X-ray nebula that spans 150 light years. At the center of this image made by NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory is a very young and powerful pulsar, known as PSR B1509-58, or B1509 for short. The pulsar is a rapidly spinning neutron star which is spewing energy out into the space around it to create complex and intriguing structures, including one that resembles a large cosmic hand. Image courtesy NASA.

Neutron stars harbor conditions that can never be duplicated in any Earth laboratory, may re-create a state of matter that existed for about one-millionth of a second after the moment of cosmic creation known as the Big Bang.

A neutron star is created during the death of a giant star more massive than the sun, compressed to a tiny size but with gravitational fields exceeded only by those of black holes. In the intense, neutron-rich environment, nuclear reactions cause strong explosions that manifest themselves as X-ray bursts and the X-ray superbursts that are more rare and 1000 times more powerful.

“Scientists are intrigued by what exactly powers these massive explosions, and understanding this would yield important insights about the fundamental forces in nature, especially on the astronomical/cosmological scale,” said Peter Moller of Los Alamos National Laboratory’s Theoretical Division.

“The terrestrial experimental study of Weak Interactions in highly deformed, neutron-rich nuclei that FRIB can potentially provide is lent support by this ground-breaking Nature letter, since Los Alamos has been one of the few homes to theoretical studies of deformed nuclei and their role in astrophysics, and remains so to this day,” said Moller.

The so-called “Weak Interactions,” are prominent in stellar explosions. The weak nuclear force is one of four fundamental sources, such as gravity, which interacts with the neutrinos; it is responsible for some types of radioactive decay.

At Los Alamos scientists have carried out detailed calculations of the specific, individual beta-decay properties of thousands of nuclides, all with different decay properties, and created databases with these calculated properties.

The databases are then used at MSU as input into models that trace the decay pathways with the passage of time in accreting neutron stars and compute the total energy that is released in these reactions.

See full article and related links at