Origins

The series “Origins” opens the new season with several articles from our guest author Harry Bourne.

India, Africa, the Sea & Antiquity: “Amerindia” and Scandinavia

Author: Harry Bourne

What is about to be described in this section is to demonstrate what is written about various groups hypothesised to have reached parts of Africa in antiquity and will mainly follow Oliver Cromwell’s much-quoted comment on the occasion of his portrait being painted. This was that the portrait had to include his warts plus all his other imperfections or never be done.
This wartsn’all approach means the noting of the good and bad about the cited groups. This will largely concentrate on the period between circa (= ca.) 500 BCE and ca. 500 CE. By BCE is meant Before Common Era (= BC) and CE indicates Common Era (= AD). Indian seafarers are mainly excluded from this section and will be discussed in Part 2 and onwards. Mention of such as “online in 2015” indicates access in that year.

 

Part 1.3

“Amerindia”

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This section figures the people(s) variously known as the First Nations, Native Americans, Amerindians, Amerinds, etc. The latter is plainly an abbreviated form of the term immediately preceding it. The inclusion of the Amerinds may be somewhat unexpected but hopefully the reason for this will become obvious.

There has been a considerable amount of research into the maritime history of Amerinds on the Pacific or west-facing littoral of the Americas. Attesting the very long history of seafaring of Amerinds these shores of West-coast Americas is the near-800 pages by Thor Heyerdahl (20). Useful supporting material is in “The Dissemination of American Economic Plants on Precolumbian Sea Routes” by Bruno Wolters (21). Also useful are Richard Callaghan (22), Dorothy Hosler (23), etc.

The last three named are among those showing extensive commercial traffic along these Pacific-facing parts of West-coast Americas. Heyerdahl, Wolters, etc, demonstrate this was largely raft-based that again could be non-stop for ca. 3500 miles between Ecuador and west Mexico. A major difference between that of the Indo-Malay ANs on the Indian Ocean and that of West-coast Americas is that the Amerind seacraft had clearly defined steering and propulsion modes. The propulsion came by use of sails and the steering methods were based on devices called guares/guaras, swords/daggers, leeboards, etc.
Evidence of the passages between Ecuador to west Mexico include shaft-graves, clothing, language, ceramics (& associated technology), metallurgy (& associated metallurgy), terraced agriculture, etc. Useful agricultural produce was also exchanged according to Wolters (ib.), as were psychoactive plants plus fungi according to such as Terry McGuire (24). Hosler (ib.) points to the interesting case of the bird called the white-faced jay. She says Ecuadorian habitat differs from that of Ecuador where it has a very restricted distribution in Mexico and says there are no known intermediate stages between Ecuador and west Mexico. She thought that it was attractive to the traders because of its color and its ability at mimicry.

The Ecuadorian merchants not only brought these birds to west Mexico but came looking for supplies of the Spondylus shell plus the psychoactive drugs also known in the homeland and apparently having the effects. McGuire (ib.) also refers to an overland trade also reaching east Mexican parts of North America. Looming large among the ancient cultures here are the Olmecs.

The Olmec Culture may have had their heartland in the Veracruz province (Mexico). An alternative name for them according to Philip Arnold (25) was Uixtotin (= Peoples of the Saltwater/Sea). To this is to be added Giancarlo Sette (26). Sette (ib.) shows Olmec artifacts evidently traded for gold and jade from Panama/Costa Rica. They include an Olmec-made object found in Costa Rica having decoration matched at the Early Olmec site of La Venta (Mex.) so presumably indicates the beginnings of this trade. What Hosler (ib.) says about the white-faced jay probably showing non-stop traders for ca. 3500 miles applies equally to Veracruz-to- Panama voyages.

By far the most complete research into the seafaring of East-coast Amerinds is by Jack Forbes (27 & 28) and is probably the nearest there is to Heyerdahl’s (ib.) massive book touched on already. He regards it as probable that East-coast Amerinds from those of Mesoamerica to those of North America as capable reaching parts of Europe. Forbes (ib.) cites John Heaviside (29) as an early believer of Amerinds reaching that part of Africa known as Egypt.

In this opinion, Heaviside runs opposite to the rather later one of Stephen Compton (30) but both agree on the Egypto/Mexican connections (as do many others). Forbes (ib.) refers to many instances of Amerinds possibly known in ancient Europe Also to the finding of bodies with faces that were neither African nor European in vessels washed up in the Azores. This was evidently reported by the brother-in-law of Columbus. Gordon Kennedy (31) makes a further possible linkage of Amerinds with the island-groups collectively known as the Macaronesian Islands that are otherwise the Azores, Madeira, the Canaries plus the Cape Verde Islands.

Kennedy is manly describing the Canary Islands. Heaviside refers to half-black and half-white populations in west African oral-lore. He says this is mirrored by a passage in the Popol Vuh (= Counsel-book [of the Quiche Maya]), itself oft-said to be the nearest thing to an Amerind sacred book. More on this comes with the frequent comparisons of west African faces and some those carved on the Olmec Great Heads, the head of a young Yoruba (Nigeria) woman and another in the famous Wuthenau collection, of the names of Yemoja/Yemoya ( a Yoruban sea-goddess) and Yemoye (an Amerind spelling of Jamaica). Other hints added when we read of Roger Blench (32) saying it seems the African palm-oil tree turned into that of the Americas and the American silk-cotton tree became the African silk-cotton tree.

A similar pattern of plant exchanges was briefly noted as having been shown by Wolters (ib.) but it should be said that this was mainly a trade in coastal waters. Views earlier than those of Heyerdahl (1952) are cited by Michael Bradley (33) that totally dismisses Amerinds sailing on rafts. Nor do all authorities agree that rafts are a typical seacraft of West –coast Amerinds.

Even after the exploits of Heyerdahl detailed in his massive 800 pages (& elsewhere) there is an opinion this only shows Norwegians are good sailors not South American Amerinds were/are. The DNA tests demonstrate Heyerdahl’s basic thrust of an Amerind origin for the Polynesians was wrong but should not be taken as indicating the Amerinds of southern West-coast Americas did not venture out on to the Pacific Ocean.

Two books by Jack Forbes have been referred to. In them, he makes obvious he has little time for claimed Africans as an ancestral strand of the Olmecs of Mexico or as traders in the Caribbean coeval with Columbus. It should be borne in mind that although Forbes points to an offshoot of the North Equatorial Current west-flowing to the Gulf of Guinea, the voyages there described in Richard Callaghan’s computerised simulations denote that they were of a drift not purposeful nature.

Douglas Peck (34) says Amerinds could not get from Yucatan (east Mex.) to Cuba. If wrecks truly imply bad seacraft, the probable Amerind bodies found in the Azores were in a wrecked vessel. Many would disagree with Kennedy (ib.) seeking Amerind links with the Canaries; the more so given there was even very little contact with nearby islands. With the Cape Verde Islands as the last of the Macaronesian groups in mind, any attempt at linking them with Amerinds in west Africa would surely fail on such as Elysee Reclus (34) noting the current between these islands and Senegal halted contacts. This would almost mirror what Peck says about Yucatan to Cuba.

 

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Thor Heyerdahl’s Expedition Kon-tiki

 

 

Scandinavia

Scandinavia or Nordic Europe is the homeland of the variously labelled as Vikings or Norse and it might again be wondered why they are included here. One similarity are scenes on rocks depicting economic activities in parts of Africa and Scandinavia. Those in the latter region include fishing and are detailed in Graham Clark’s (35) “The Development of fishing in prehistoric Europe”. Clark’s many works attest large bones showing adult cod at sites of the Mesolithic (= Middle Stone Age) plus the gathering of stone from the Lofoten Islands for axe-making. The rock-art continues through the Neolithic (= New Stone Age) into the succeeding Bronze and Iron Ages. By the Pre-Roman Iron Age, the Hjortspring/Nydam/Kvalsum/ Gokstad sequence of Nordic ship-building has already begun. It should be borne in mind this is a simplified version of development but serves as rough and ready way to demonstrate stages leading up to the beginning of the Viking period.
The ship excavated at Gokstad (Norway) in the 19th c. is held to be a fine example of Nordic/Viking shipbuilding. As the Phoenicians had a round-shaped merchantmen called the golah so the Vikings had one called the knarr. Likewise, the Phoenicians had a called a kirkarah and the Vikings had the drakarr (= dragon-ship/longship). As is normal, the drakarr as a warship gets most attention.

Drakarr

Viking long ship “drakarr”

 

Follow up: Part 1.3: . Stay tuned. 

The first chapters of this can be found here:

Part 1.1 China

Part 1.2 Indonesia

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The Hindu Origins Of The Olmecs

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(This article is part of the subject “Search For Civilization X” on this blog)

By Gene D. Matlock

There's an old saying: "Everybody loves a mystery." Unfortunately, the rapid development of computers, which is uniting all the world and its acquired knowledge in one vast network, is making mysteries scarcer than hens' teeth. Mutual similarities between many languages and cultures in various parts of the world are becoming more and more apparent.

During the 17th century, the famous orientalist Edward Pococke noticed a disturbing similarity between classical Greek and Sanskrit. In his book, India in Greece, he showed that nearly all the place and tribal names of the Greeks had their similar correspondences in Northern India, especially in Afghanistan. The 18th century English scholar, William Jones, discovered the similarity of Sanskrit with many European languages, including Greek and Latin. Godfrey Higgins also supported their views in his two volume work, Anacalypsis. They and other distinguished linguists of the time concluded that non-Africanoid mankind probably originated in India, the Near East, and Siberia. These 17th and 18th century scholars were able to show that place, tribal, and religious names tended to stay the same, no matter how far certain ancient tribes dispersed themselves in different parts of the earth.

In the 1900s, Mexican scholars noted that the Nahuatl language is derived from Sanskrit. Even the word Nahua derives from the Sanskrit word for "sailor:" Nava or Navaja. Like their brother Allemans in Germany, the Olmecs could pronounce "V" only as "W."

Later on in the 20th century, in keeping with rising ethnocentrism in the world, many biased scholars tried to discredit the 17th and 18th century pioneers in linguistics, saying that words in one language, sounding alike and having similar meanings in other languages, did not prove that these languages were related. They created a pseudoscience called "Historical Linguistics."

For nearly all the last half of the 20th century, these historical linguists held sway over the minds of historians and archeologists, much to the delight of those "noble savages" wanting to think of their respective ethnicities and cultures as "original." Non-diffusionism was in. Diffusionism was out. Diffusionists were labeled as racially biased for wanting to discredit the "noble savages." But not all the "noble savages" sided with the non-diffusionists; they began to feel left out of the human race. Some began to ask, "Did I evolve from a species of ape completely different from the bonomo chimp from whom the rest of mankind descends?" The suspicion that they might somehow not have a common origin with other humans drove many of them to drink and perdition.

Thanks to the increasing cultural compression of the world, archeologists and linguists are concluding that men like Edward Pococke, William Jones, and Godfrey Higgins were right after all. The historical linguists and non-diffusionist archeologists are beginning to retire or change professions.

The Olmecs - Proof of Diffusion?

A favorite superstition of non-diffusionists and historical linguists is the mystery of the origin of the Olmecs. They appear not to notice the nearly exact similarities between the ancient peoples of Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Kashmir, Rajasthan, etc., a part of India called Sivapuri, and the Meso-American Olmecs. I cannot understand or empathize with this type of non-awareness.

In ancient Northern India, a religio-political savant was known as Ma-gul, Mo-gul or Ul-mag, which meant "The Great God Ul." The syllables were interchangeable.

They were also called Eu-lama or Eu-rama (Aram), according to the different tribes' ability to pronounce "R" and "L." Eu = "Great." Rama/Lama = "Priest." Even today, among the Moslems, an Ulama or Ulema is a religious scholar and leader. There was even an ancient Near Eastern nation named Elam.

These distinguished priest scholars were additionally called Ul-man, Olman, or Ul-manu. meaning "Deified Sovereigns of the Earth."

When the non-Africanoid races of mankind left India for other parts of the world, the Ul-mags continued to call themselves Alleman (Germans), Aramean or Aramaic, and Olman, Ulmak or Olmek, in ancient Mexico. It is significant to note that the Phoenician sailor-traders had many names, one of which was Aram (Aramean). The Huichol Indians of Nayarit, Mexico call the port of San Blas Aramara, named after the India-Indian port they left on their voyage to America. Could this account for the name of the Nahuas?

The bible mentions that Solomon imported Almug trees from Sophir which was part of the northwestern coast of India: Sauvira. Scholars tell us that the Almug was really the Sandalwood tree. I'm not disputing that, but I am wondering why the Olmecs called the rubber tree Ulama(k). Just as the India-Indian Almug tree was held to be extremely sacred among the ancient Hindus, so also did the Olmecs revere the sacredness of the Ulama(k) tree.

A Sanskrit name for a particularly viscous sap is Urj. The Olmecs called the sap of their Ulama(k) tree Olli/Ulli. Olli was regarded as a sacred substance of life, like blood. Often, Olli sounded like Ollin because the Nahua-speaking people tended to nasalize the last syllable.

As I have stated, the Olmecs probably could pronounce "R" only as "L." The double "LL" in Spanish is regarded as a separate letter, sounding like Elye or Eljeh, according to the dialect being spoken. For instance, the Argentinians pronounce "Y" plus a vowel, as "J." For that reason, what the ancient Ul-mags or Mo-guls of Afghanistan called Urj, the Olmecs pronounced as Olji/Ulji.

Ulama - the ball game of life and death

The Olmecs played a type of sacred ball game, the name of which was the same as their sacred tree: Ulama. This holy ball game was played by all the Indians of the American Southwest, as far as the northern borders of South America itself.

For this and other reasons, I have long thought that the Olmecs were among the original settlers of the American Southwest, where they became known as the Hohokams and O'odhams, as I so state in my book, From Khyber (Kheeber) Pass to Gran Quivira (Kheevira), NM and Baboquivari, AZ -- When India Ruled the World!

Ulama was known as "The Game of Life and Death." It was played in ceremonies symbolizing the creation of the world and the struggle for supremacy between the forces of good and evil; day and night; life and death. The game was so sacred that losers were decapitated. The ruins one of the ancient Southwestern Hohokam ball courts can be seen at the archeological site near Casa Grande, Arizona. The Hohokam civilization, as well as its buildings, was truly splendid, with great mud-packed buildings several stories high, manmade lagoons, canals, and fields of corn, bean, squash, and chiles. However, its buildings long ago melted back into the earth; its lakes and canals became buried in desert sand. Archeologists in Arizona tell me that Hohokam ruins can be found throughout Southern Arizona, but they usually bury them again after they have been excavated and examined.

Noting that Ulama was not just an ordinary game, the Spaniards prohibited it after the Conquista. However, the Spanish fathers in Central and Northern Mexico, as well as those in Southwestern United States, allowed it to exist as a secular sport. Gradually, the game died in popularity, but it is still the favorite game of many Indians and mestizo villagers in Central and Northern Mexico. Tourists traveling in Mexico often see this game being played in villages near Mazatlan, such as Escuinapa. Ulama is presently increasing in popularity, promising to again become one of Mexico's favorite national sports.

More Evidence of Asian - American Contact:
Ancient Pyramids Discovered in Uzbekistan

A joint expedition of Russian and Uzbek archaeologists has discovered several ancient pyramids in Uzbekistan. According to the scientists, these 15-metre high constructions may be at least 2,700 years old. The ancient pyramids were discovered in a remote mountains area, in the Kashkadaryin and Samarkand regions in the south of the country, according to the BBC quoting from Pravda. Archaelogists state that the discovered pyramids are similar to the ones of Giza, Egypt, but in contrast to them, Uzbek pyramids have a flat surface, resembling those found in Central America. According to the experts, thanks to their remoteness, the pyramids were not taken to pieces to serve as building material in later epochs. According to archaeoligists, if the constructions are really pyramids, this is a very important discovery, since nothing of the kind has been found in this area before. Now, the task of the scientists is to establish a chronology and examine known local cultures, to ascertain the purpose of these constructions, tombs, temples, or something else. (Pravda, June 19, 2002.)

The Walls of ancient Khiva [pictured above], Uzbukistan, one of the oldest living cities on earth. Like the buildings of the Southwestern American Indians, Khiva's walls and buildings are made of packed mud and adobe, even having the appearance of some types of Southwestern Puebloan architecture.

Original article: Viewzone

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The Search For Civilization X

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