Origins

The series “Origins” opens the new season with several articles from our guest author Harry Bourne.

India, Africa, the Sea & Antiquity: “Amerindia” and Scandinavia

Author: Harry Bourne

What is about to be described in this section is to demonstrate what is written about various groups hypothesised to have reached parts of Africa in antiquity and will mainly follow Oliver Cromwell’s much-quoted comment on the occasion of his portrait being painted. This was that the portrait had to include his warts plus all his other imperfections or never be done.
This wartsn’all approach means the noting of the good and bad about the cited groups. This will largely concentrate on the period between circa (= ca.) 500 BCE and ca. 500 CE. By BCE is meant Before Common Era (= BC) and CE indicates Common Era (= AD). Indian seafarers are mainly excluded from this section and will be discussed in Part 2 and onwards. Mention of such as “online in 2015” indicates access in that year.

 

Part 1.3

“Amerindia”

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This section figures the people(s) variously known as the First Nations, Native Americans, Amerindians, Amerinds, etc. The latter is plainly an abbreviated form of the term immediately preceding it. The inclusion of the Amerinds may be somewhat unexpected but hopefully the reason for this will become obvious.

There has been a considerable amount of research into the maritime history of Amerinds on the Pacific or west-facing littoral of the Americas. Attesting the very long history of seafaring of Amerinds these shores of West-coast Americas is the near-800 pages by Thor Heyerdahl (20). Useful supporting material is in “The Dissemination of American Economic Plants on Precolumbian Sea Routes” by Bruno Wolters (21). Also useful are Richard Callaghan (22), Dorothy Hosler (23), etc.

The last three named are among those showing extensive commercial traffic along these Pacific-facing parts of West-coast Americas. Heyerdahl, Wolters, etc, demonstrate this was largely raft-based that again could be non-stop for ca. 3500 miles between Ecuador and west Mexico. A major difference between that of the Indo-Malay ANs on the Indian Ocean and that of West-coast Americas is that the Amerind seacraft had clearly defined steering and propulsion modes. The propulsion came by use of sails and the steering methods were based on devices called guares/guaras, swords/daggers, leeboards, etc.
Evidence of the passages between Ecuador to west Mexico include shaft-graves, clothing, language, ceramics (& associated technology), metallurgy (& associated metallurgy), terraced agriculture, etc. Useful agricultural produce was also exchanged according to Wolters (ib.), as were psychoactive plants plus fungi according to such as Terry McGuire (24). Hosler (ib.) points to the interesting case of the bird called the white-faced jay. She says Ecuadorian habitat differs from that of Ecuador where it has a very restricted distribution in Mexico and says there are no known intermediate stages between Ecuador and west Mexico. She thought that it was attractive to the traders because of its color and its ability at mimicry.

The Ecuadorian merchants not only brought these birds to west Mexico but came looking for supplies of the Spondylus shell plus the psychoactive drugs also known in the homeland and apparently having the effects. McGuire (ib.) also refers to an overland trade also reaching east Mexican parts of North America. Looming large among the ancient cultures here are the Olmecs.

The Olmec Culture may have had their heartland in the Veracruz province (Mexico). An alternative name for them according to Philip Arnold (25) was Uixtotin (= Peoples of the Saltwater/Sea). To this is to be added Giancarlo Sette (26). Sette (ib.) shows Olmec artifacts evidently traded for gold and jade from Panama/Costa Rica. They include an Olmec-made object found in Costa Rica having decoration matched at the Early Olmec site of La Venta (Mex.) so presumably indicates the beginnings of this trade. What Hosler (ib.) says about the white-faced jay probably showing non-stop traders for ca. 3500 miles applies equally to Veracruz-to- Panama voyages.

By far the most complete research into the seafaring of East-coast Amerinds is by Jack Forbes (27 & 28) and is probably the nearest there is to Heyerdahl’s (ib.) massive book touched on already. He regards it as probable that East-coast Amerinds from those of Mesoamerica to those of North America as capable reaching parts of Europe. Forbes (ib.) cites John Heaviside (29) as an early believer of Amerinds reaching that part of Africa known as Egypt.

In this opinion, Heaviside runs opposite to the rather later one of Stephen Compton (30) but both agree on the Egypto/Mexican connections (as do many others). Forbes (ib.) refers to many instances of Amerinds possibly known in ancient Europe Also to the finding of bodies with faces that were neither African nor European in vessels washed up in the Azores. This was evidently reported by the brother-in-law of Columbus. Gordon Kennedy (31) makes a further possible linkage of Amerinds with the island-groups collectively known as the Macaronesian Islands that are otherwise the Azores, Madeira, the Canaries plus the Cape Verde Islands.

Kennedy is manly describing the Canary Islands. Heaviside refers to half-black and half-white populations in west African oral-lore. He says this is mirrored by a passage in the Popol Vuh (= Counsel-book [of the Quiche Maya]), itself oft-said to be the nearest thing to an Amerind sacred book. More on this comes with the frequent comparisons of west African faces and some those carved on the Olmec Great Heads, the head of a young Yoruba (Nigeria) woman and another in the famous Wuthenau collection, of the names of Yemoja/Yemoya ( a Yoruban sea-goddess) and Yemoye (an Amerind spelling of Jamaica). Other hints added when we read of Roger Blench (32) saying it seems the African palm-oil tree turned into that of the Americas and the American silk-cotton tree became the African silk-cotton tree.

A similar pattern of plant exchanges was briefly noted as having been shown by Wolters (ib.) but it should be said that this was mainly a trade in coastal waters. Views earlier than those of Heyerdahl (1952) are cited by Michael Bradley (33) that totally dismisses Amerinds sailing on rafts. Nor do all authorities agree that rafts are a typical seacraft of West –coast Amerinds.

Even after the exploits of Heyerdahl detailed in his massive 800 pages (& elsewhere) there is an opinion this only shows Norwegians are good sailors not South American Amerinds were/are. The DNA tests demonstrate Heyerdahl’s basic thrust of an Amerind origin for the Polynesians was wrong but should not be taken as indicating the Amerinds of southern West-coast Americas did not venture out on to the Pacific Ocean.

Two books by Jack Forbes have been referred to. In them, he makes obvious he has little time for claimed Africans as an ancestral strand of the Olmecs of Mexico or as traders in the Caribbean coeval with Columbus. It should be borne in mind that although Forbes points to an offshoot of the North Equatorial Current west-flowing to the Gulf of Guinea, the voyages there described in Richard Callaghan’s computerised simulations denote that they were of a drift not purposeful nature.

Douglas Peck (34) says Amerinds could not get from Yucatan (east Mex.) to Cuba. If wrecks truly imply bad seacraft, the probable Amerind bodies found in the Azores were in a wrecked vessel. Many would disagree with Kennedy (ib.) seeking Amerind links with the Canaries; the more so given there was even very little contact with nearby islands. With the Cape Verde Islands as the last of the Macaronesian groups in mind, any attempt at linking them with Amerinds in west Africa would surely fail on such as Elysee Reclus (34) noting the current between these islands and Senegal halted contacts. This would almost mirror what Peck says about Yucatan to Cuba.

 

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Thor Heyerdahl’s Expedition Kon-tiki

 

 

Scandinavia

Scandinavia or Nordic Europe is the homeland of the variously labelled as Vikings or Norse and it might again be wondered why they are included here. One similarity are scenes on rocks depicting economic activities in parts of Africa and Scandinavia. Those in the latter region include fishing and are detailed in Graham Clark’s (35) “The Development of fishing in prehistoric Europe”. Clark’s many works attest large bones showing adult cod at sites of the Mesolithic (= Middle Stone Age) plus the gathering of stone from the Lofoten Islands for axe-making. The rock-art continues through the Neolithic (= New Stone Age) into the succeeding Bronze and Iron Ages. By the Pre-Roman Iron Age, the Hjortspring/Nydam/Kvalsum/ Gokstad sequence of Nordic ship-building has already begun. It should be borne in mind this is a simplified version of development but serves as rough and ready way to demonstrate stages leading up to the beginning of the Viking period.
The ship excavated at Gokstad (Norway) in the 19th c. is held to be a fine example of Nordic/Viking shipbuilding. As the Phoenicians had a round-shaped merchantmen called the golah so the Vikings had one called the knarr. Likewise, the Phoenicians had a called a kirkarah and the Vikings had the drakarr (= dragon-ship/longship). As is normal, the drakarr as a warship gets most attention.

Drakarr

Viking long ship “drakarr”

 

Follow up: Part 1.3: . Stay tuned. 

The first chapters of this can be found here:

Part 1.1 China

Part 1.2 Indonesia

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Predictions and Prophecies: III. Ragnarök, The Downfall Of The Gods On February 22, 2014

Will the world end in less than 50 days?

PART I

In Norse mythology, Ragnarök is a series of future events, including a great battle foretold to ultimately result in the death of a number of major figures (including the gods Odin, Thor, Týr, Freyr, Heimdallr, and Loki), the occurrence of various natural disasters, and the subsequent submersion of the world in water. Afterward, the world will resurface anew and fertile, the surviving and returning gods will meet, and the world will be repopulated by two human survivors. Ragnarök is an important event in the Norse canon, and has been the subject of scholarly discourse and theory.

The event is attested primarily in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, and the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. In the Prose Edda, and a single poem in the Poetic Edda, the event is referred to as Ragnarök or Ragnarøkkr (Old Norse “Fate of the Gods” or “Twilight of the Gods” respectively), a usage popularized by 19th-century composer Richard Wagner with the title of the last of his Der Ring des Nibelungen operas, Götterdämmerung (1876).

THE RAGNARÖK APOCALYPSE
  • Ragnarök, which translates to ‘Doom of the Gods’, is due to be preceded by the ‘winter of winters’.
  • Vikings believed that prior to the apocalypse three freezing winters would follow each other with no summers in between.
  • All morality would disappear and fights would break out all over the world, signalling the beginning of the end.
  • The wolf Skoll would then devour the sun, and his brother Hati would eat the moon, causing stars to vanish from the sky.
  • Norse mythology experts have calculated that this is due to take place on February 22, 2014.
  • On this day, the god Odin will be killed by the wolf Fenrir and the other ‘creator’ gods.
  • There will be huge earthquakes, the sea will rear up and the soil and the sky will be stained with poison.
  • The Earth will sink into the sea, paving the way for a new utopian world with endless supplies.

Image

The end of the world was signalled in York in November 15, as a horn was blown to herald the beginning of the apocalypse

Ragnarok, which translates to ‘Doom of the Gods’, is due to be preceded by the winter of winters.

Vikings believed, prior to the apocalypse, three freezing winters would follow each other with no summers in between.

ImageAll morality would disappear and fights would break out all over the world, signalling the beginning of the end.

The wolf Skoll would devour the sun, and his brother Hati would eat the moon, causing stars to vanish from the sky and the Earth to be thrown into eternal darkness.

Norse mythology experts have calculated that Vikings believed this will take place on February 22, 2014.

On this day, the god Odin will be killed by the wolf Fenrir and the other ‘creator’ gods.

(To the right: ‘Then the Awful Fight’, by George Wright in 1908, depicts the final battle of the gods)

ImageThe sound of the horn is supposed to call the sons of Odin and the heroes to the battlefield, where Odin (pictured) will ultimately be killed

There will be huge earthquakes, the sea will rear up and the soil and the sky will be stained with poison.

The sound of the horn is supposed to call the sons of Odin to the battlefield, where Odin will ultimately be killed.

After his death, the Earth was foretold to sink into the sea, paving the way for a new utopian world with endless supplies.

Danielle Daglan from the Norvik Viking Centre told MailOnline that a number of recent events spoken about in the legends of Ragnarok led them to believe that the end of the world may well be imminent.

The legend states that ‘the first to notice shall be man, brother will fight brother and all the boundaries that exist shall crumble.’

‘The idea that “boundaries that exist shall crumble” could be said to be about the Internet age, where you can communicate with millions of people simultaneously around the world thanks to the global rise of social media,’ said Ms Daglan.

Viking tradition also believes that a vast winter will appear before the apocalypse.

Image

‘Kampf der untergehenden Götter’ which translates as ‘Battle of the Doomed Gods’ was painted in 1882 by Wilhelm Wägner and depicts the gods in their ultimate fight. This was predicted to occur shortly before huge earthquakes and treacherous seas. it was thought that the soil sky would then be ‘stained with poison’

‘There are predictions that we are heading into a mini-ice age thanks to a fall in solar flare activity – what is a mini-ice age but several winters rolled into one?’ said Ms Daglan.

Another part of the legend claims that the Midgard Serpent, named Jormungand, shall free itself from its tail and rise up from the ocean.

Ms Dagland points to the two huge fish which appeared on a beach in California last month.

The giant oarfish were dead when they washed up on land, and some scientists believe they came ashore to die because they are ‘in distress’.

‘Traditionally, the Viking festival of Jolablot marked the end of the winter – if this winter truly does not end, then that feast may be given over to Ragnarok instead,’ said Ms Dagland.

The Jorvik Viking Centre predicted that Ragnarok would occur on 22 February because this is the end of the feast of Jolablot.

While not a scientific conclusion, they claim that Vikings loved to feast and wouldn’t want to miss this event. For this reason, they argue that Vikings would believe the world would end in 48 days from today.

The end of the world is coincidently the start of the grand finale of the Viking festival in York.

‘Following a study published in 2010 that bearded men are more trustworthy than those without, we’re also looking for fantastic displays of facial hair, so that we can identify those with the potential to take us into the brave new world that is foretold to follow Ragnarok,’ said Danielle Daglan director of the JORVIK Viking Festival.

‘In the last couple of years, we’ve had predictions of the Mayan apocalypse, which passed without incident, and numerous other dates where the end of the world has been pencilled in by seers, fortune tellers and visionaries,’ she added.

‘But the sound of the horn is possibly the best indicator yet that the Viking version of the end of the world really will happen on 22 February next year.’

WHY DOES THE JORVIK VIKING CENTRE BELIEVE RAGNAROK IS IMMINENT?

Danielle Daglan from the Norvik Viking Centre told MailOnline that a number of recent events spoken about in the legends of Ragnarok led them to believe that the end of the world may well be imminent.

For instance, the legend states that ‘the first to notice shall be man, brother will fight brother and all the boundaries that exist shall crumble.’

‘The idea that “boundaries that exist shall crumble” could be said to be about the Internet age, where you can communicate with millions of people simultaneously around the world thanks to the global rise of social media,’ said Ms Daglan.

Viking tradition also believes that a vast winter will appear before the apocalypse.

‘There are predictions that we are heading into a mini-ice age thanks to a fall in solar flare activity – what is a mini-ice age but several winters rolled into one?’ said Ms Daglan.

Another part of the legend suggests that the Midgard Serpent, named Jormungand, shall free itself from its tail and rise up from the ocean.

Ms Dagland points to the two huge fish which appeared on a beach in California last month.

The giant oarfish were dead when they washed up on land, and some scientists believe they came ashore to die because they are ‘in distress’.

‘Traditionally, the Viking festival of Jolablot marked the end of the winter – if this winter truly does not end, then that feast may be given over to Ragnarok instead,’ said Ms Dagland.

The Jorvik Viking Centre predicted that Ragnarok would occur on 22 February because this is the end of the feast of Jolablot.

While not a scientific conclusion, they claim that Vikings loved to feast and wouldn’t want to miss this event. For this reason, they argue that Vikings would believe the world would end in 48 days.

ImageOne part of the legend suggests that the Midgard Serpent, named Jormungand, shall free itself from its tail and rise up from the ocean. Ms Dagland points to the two huge fish which appeared on a beach in California in October 2013. 

(See also: Is the oarfish legend true?)

However, while the story foretold in Ragnarök resembles the Atlantis legend and other legends about sunken continents and cities a lot, it is a medieval document that might as well reproduce legends inherited from earlier populations.

In the second part of the Ragnarök prophecy, we will have a look at other interpretations and also some scientific views on the legend.

Stay tuned.

Sources: Dailymail, Wikipedia

Image credit: Wagneropera.net

Link

The Cycle of Time Number 432

In Joseph Campbell’s, The Inner Reaches Of Outer Space, he writes about the similarity between the Babylonian and Genesis flood stories. In the Babylonian or Sumerian story, there were ten kings who lived very long lives from creation to the time of the flood. This is given as a total of 432,000 years.

Sumerian King List (a version)
King

City

Year

Aloros

Babylon

36,000

Alaparos

Unknown

10,800

Amelon

Pautibiblon

46,800

Ammenon

Pautibiblon

43,200

Amegalaros

Pautibiblon

64,800

Daonos

Pautibiblon

36,000

 Euedorachos

Pautibiblon

64,800

Amempsinos

Laragchos

36,000

Otiartes

Laragchos

28,800

Xisouthros

Unknown

64,800

Total years =

432,000

In the Biblical account, there were ten patriarchs between Adam and Noah, who also lived long lives. Noah was 600 years old at the time of the landing of the Ark on the mountains of Ararat (in present day Turkey). The total years add up to 1,656.

Dates in Genesis
Antediluvian
Patriarch

Age wen
Begging Son

Age at
Time of Death

Adam (Gen 5:3-5)

130

930

Seth (Gen 5:6-8)

105

912

Enosh (Gen 5:911)

90

905

Kenon (Gen 5:12-14)

70

910

Mahalalel (Gen 5:15-17)

65

895

Jared (Gen 5:18-20)

162

962

Enoch (Gen 5:21-24)

65

365

Methuselah (Gen 5:25-27)

187

969

Lamech (Gen 5:28-31)

182

767

Noah (Gen 7:6)

600
when Flood came

Total years until Flood =

1,656

In 1,656 years, there are 86,400 weeks, and half that number is 43,200. There are myths about cycles in time, and out of time, so this doubling/halving is not uncommon. He believed that someone carefully gave the age of Noah to secretly hide the time cycle number.

He points out a number of other strange things about the numbers. Viking eddas were found in Iceland that told the story of the Day of Ragnorook, the Doomsday of the Gods. At that time, 800 Divine Warriors will come out of each of the 540 Doors of Valhalla (800 x 540 = 432,000).

The number can be found in an internal clock in the body, as well as in the Cosmos. A trained athlete’s heart beats one time each second. In a 24 hour day, that is 86,400 beats.

The earth’s axis wobble that causes the precession of the equinoxes is given as 25,920 years. Divided by the ancient number called “soss,” 60, which was used in calculations, results in 432.

A manufacturer of golf balls once did a test to find the ideal number of dimples to put on golf balls. It turned out that balls with 432 dimples went farther than the rest.

I have read elsewhere that the Kali-Yuga time cycle of the Eastern religions, is also 432,000 years (in some stories a different multiple). I once had a dream of a football game, that I knew was an anology to the Great Change at the end of the present cycle. There are 11 players on each team, for an 11:11, which some say is related to the opening of the Doorway in the Belt of Orion.

My dreaming path suggests it is about Revelation 11:11, where the two olive trees/lampstands/prophets stand up after 3 and 1/2 days. It is a reference to the midpoint in the chakra system. The next step is the fourth, the Heart Chakra. The head coach in my dream was Mr. Webb, and the assistant coach was Mr. Noon. I started to write a check to Mr. Webb for my football equipment. There were threads in a pattern on the check, which I had to remove to sign it. The coach reminded me that the check was to go to Mr. Noon, because he had provided the equipment. As I was trying to interpret the dream, I realized – noon is half a day, 12 hours. 60 x 60 x 12 = 43,200 seconds!

The New Jerusalem Plan

Also interesting, The Woman with Child in Revelation 12 has a crown of 12 stars. The New Jerusalem has 12 gates, angels, jewels and pearls. The symbol of the Heart chakra is a 12-petal Lotus Flower. John Mitchell, author of City Of Revelation, shows a diagram of the New Jerusalem Plan, based on St. John’s vision. It has 12 circles in a ring, with a 12-pointed star inside, formed by four overlapping triangles. The Zodiac is often depicted in a similar way. If you take the circles to be 360 degrees each, it comes to 4,320.

Crop circle researches report that a similar Plan is found by dowsing within certain crop patterns, as well as at ancient sites, such as Stonehenge and Avebury. 432 is part of a Gematrian numbering system, that seems to be based on adding the number 36. 1656 and 25920 are two of them. Others are 144 or 144,000, and 1260, which also appear in Revelation. Each number had an “Alpha” or word meaning. 432, for example, means “Consecration.” Some believe that the numbers were encoded in the Bible to transmit messages across time itself. Carl Munck has shown that these numbers were part of a very ancient system for positioning ancient sites around the world. His friend, and mine, James Furia, has shown that the musical scale is related. The centering note is “A” at 432 cps, rather than the standard 440.

Read more The Cycle Of Time 432